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Science Notes #19

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

What is DNA? An organic molecule that makes up chromosomes and genes
What is DNA responsible for? All the inherited difference among organisms (genetic blueprint)
What does DNA control? The activities of the cells with it's coded instructions
How many cells contain DNA? 100 trillion
Who first discovered DNA molecules in what year? Rosaling Franklin-1951
What is the double helix spiral? DNA staircase strand of molecules
How did Rosaling Franklin see DNA molecules? X-ray machine
Who were the 2 men who made a model of DNA's double helix spiral? James Watson + Francis Crick
What is in the nucleus of every cell? A copy of the organism's unique blueprint
What is DNA twisted up into? Chromosomes
How many of each chromosome is in the nucleus? 2
How many chromosomes do humans have? 46
What are the 4 nitrogen bases? Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
What is a codon? A set of 3 pairs of DNA
Each codon codes for 1-____ different ________ to make a protein. 20, amino acids
What is a nucleotide? A section of DNA that is made up of 1 sugar molecule, 1 phosphate molecule and 1 nitrogen base
What is the genome? The complete set of instructions for the organism
What does RNA stand for? Ribonucleic acid
How many strands of DNA make up RNA? 1
What is RNA's nitrogen base and who does it bond with? Uracil bonds with adenine
Where is RNA made? Nucleolus
What are the 2 types of RNA? Messenger RNA and transfer RNA
What is RNA's job? Transfer a copy of DNA from the nucleus out into the cytoplasm to help ribosomes make proteins.
What bonds to create a protein molecule? Amino acids and a code of DNA copied
What is protein synthesis? The process of transfering materials by RNA to ribosomes to create proteins.
Humans have greater than how many genes? 30,000
What are proteins made up of? Amino acids
What controls what protein is made? The order of the amino acids
Specific proteins carry out specific what? Functions
What percent of your genes are Junk DNA? 20%
What is junk DNA? Genes that don't code for proteins or regulate traits
What is cell division? When cells divide to create new cells.
What is DNA replication? Copying DNA for a new cell.
What is a harmful mutation? Cancer
Where do mutations occur? Sex cells
What are scientists creating to cure hemophilia? Synthetic DNA
What scientists study evolutionary relationships among organisms? Taxonomists
What is genetic engineering? A manipulative DNA changer that forms more DNA that is resistant to diseases
Created by: rozeepozee9893