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Bio 225 final exam

What is microbiology? The study of microorganisms too small to be seen with the naked eye
What organisms fall within the microbiology studies? fungi, algae, parasites, protists, bacteria, and viruses
Why are microorganisms important to humans/life? 4 answers 1. Nutrient production and energy flow by engaging in photosynthesis 2.Decomposition and nutrient recycling 3.Biotechnology/ Genetic engineering 4.Bioremediation
Why is biotechnology important to life? Can manipulate to produce proteins for our use
Why is bioremediatoin important to life? used to restore stability or clean up pollutants
What was the hypothesis of spontaneous generation? That microorganisms arose from nonliving things
What is the germ theory of disease? microorganisms can invade the other organisms and cause disease
What are the steps of the scientific method? 1.Make an observation-something noticed about the natural world 2.Form a hypothesis-testable and falsifiable explanation 3.Make a prediction-if/then statement 4.Verify results or eliminate hypothesis 5.Form conclusions-based on repeated experiments
Why do we use the scientific method? To prevent human biases from affecting our outcomes
What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? Hypothesis- testable and falsifiable explanation Theory- explains laws and facts
What is an atom? the smallest chemical unit of matter, an element is composed of one kind of atom
What subatomic particles make up an atom? protons, neutrons, and electrons
What is a molecule? A compound? Molecules- 2 or more atoms held together by chemical bonds Compounds- molecules consisting of 2 or more different atoms or different elements
What is the difference between a ionic bond and a covalent bond? Ionic bond- the transfer of electrons Covalent bond- sharing of electrons
What is an acid? A base? Where do these fall on the pH scale? Acid- proton donor- strong acid donates all the protons to solvent Base- proton acceptor or OH- acceptor- strong base accepts all the protons An acid is 0-7, base is 7-14
What does organic mean? Organic molecules contain carbon and hydrogen
What are the four major macromolecules essential for life? 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Nucleic Acids 4. Lipids
What are the function of carbohydrates? Monosaccharides- nutrient and energy storage, structural support, cellulose in cell wall of plants
What are the function of Proteins? Amino acids- structure determines function- support, enzymes, transport, defense, movement
What are the function of Nucleic Acids? Nucleotides- heredity material and organization of protein synthesis
What are the function of Lipids? do not have monomers, but fats and oils- energy storage, membrane structure, cell membrane components, and cell to cell recognition
What are the characteristics of life? Heredity and reproduction, growth and development, metabolism, movement and or irritability, homeostasis, composed of cells
What is a cell? structural and functional unit of living organisms, tiny compartment, surrounded by membrane which contains proteins and nucleic acids, internal stuff every organized
What is the difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote? Eukaryotes have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles, prokaryotes do not
Is bacteria prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Prokaryotic
Are fungi, protists, plants, and animals prokaryotes or eukaryotes? Eukaryotes
How are bacteria classified with respect to cell morphology and arrangement? Genus
What is the purpose of a flagellum? movement, has a filament, hook, and basal body
What is the purpose of a fimbriae? adhesion and cellular interaction- aids in biolfilm formation- sticks and forms layers making harder to treat
What is the purpose of a pili? to transfer genetic information- adheres to other cells to transfer information
What is the purpose of a glycocalyx? protection and adhesion of biofilms- Slime- protects against dehydration and nutrient loss- Capsule- helps protect against immune response and phagocyte response
What is the purpose of a cell envelope? a cell membrane, usually surrounded by a cell wall acts to maintain cell integrity and structural support
What are the major differences between gram negative and gram positive bacteria? Gram positive has a thick 95% petidoglycan layer in cell wall, with a small periplasmic space, and no outer membrane Gram negative has less than 5% peptidoglycan layer in cell wall, with a large periplasmic space, and an outer membrane
What is the difference between a chromosome and a plasmid? Chromosome- carry all the genes necessary for survival Plasmid- DNA, extrachromosomal, contains genes that are not essential to life
What is an endospore and when is it produced? Endospores are a means of protection formed to protect from extreme environments
What is the theory of endosymbiosis? Eukaryotes were once independant living prokaryotes which were engulfed and lost ability to live on own
What is the evidence of the theory of endosymbiosis? Mitochondria and chlorplasts have their own circular genomes. Mitochondria has own ribosmomes similar to prokaryotic ribosomes
What is the function of the nucleus? has a nuclear envelope which has pores and a center region- the nucleolus- where DNA is and ribosomes are made, regulates all cell activities
What is the function of the Endoplasmic Reticulum? Tunnels used for transport.Rough ER- associated with the ribosomes attatched to the nucleus, allows transport between the nucleus,the cytoplasm,and the cell exterior.Smooth ER- more tubular, processing, sythesis, storage of non proteins macromolecules
What is the function of the golgi apparatus? Where modification takes place- modifies, stores and packages for transport- flattened sacks of membranes assoc with the ER- transitional vesicles ER to Golgi- Condensing vesicles Golgi to final destination
What is the function of the ribosomes? protein synthesis- assembles on the 5 end of the mRNA transcript- the large subunit supplies the enzymes for 3 sites attatchment, production, and exit
What is the function of the mitochondria? Energy generator of the cell- ATP synthesis- Cristae- folds of inner membrane where enzymes and electron carriers for aerobic respiration located- matrix- space around the cristae contains ribosomes and DNA
What is the function of the chloroplast? converts energy from the sun into chemical energ- photosynthesis-
Why aren't viruses considered to be alive? do not make own protein, ATP, divide on own, and no cell membrane
What are the components of viruses? enveloped or naked, protein capsid, nucleic acid
What is the function of the capsid? protect the nucleic acids from the external environment and aids in introducing viral nucleic acid into the host cell
What is the function of the envelope in viruses? an additional covering made from host cells membrane when released
What are the steps of a typical viral infection? Adsorption, penetration, uncoating, synthesis, assembly
What happens in the adsorption phase of a viral infection? encounters randomly susceptible host cell- binds to specific receptor- all viruses have a host range and may exhibit tropism- restricted (1 species- 1 cell type) Intermediate (primates- 2 cell types) Broad
What happens in the penetration phase of a viral infection? getting into cell- endocytoses- viris is engulfed- usually naked OR fusion-envelope merges with host cells membrane
What happens in the uncoating phase of a viral infection? the capsid and/or envelope dissolves exposing the nucleic acid inside host
What happens in the synthesis phase of a viral infection? making new proteins and nucleic acids- freed viral nucleic acids use the host cell's synthetic and metabolic machinery- all the protein necessary to make capsid, spikes, viral enzymes made, new nucleic acids will be made
What happens in the assembly phase of a viral infection? virus particles are constructed, capsid formed, nucleic acid put in capsid, viral spikes may be placed into host cell membrane and glycoproteins taken needed to stab next cell
What occurse during the release of a virus? assembled virus leaves the host cell- lysis(fast destruction-usually naked) or Budding/exocytosis(gradual destruction of the cell-usually enveloped) in most cases host cells die regardless fo the type of exit
What is a bacteriophage? virus that infects bacteria
What is a prion? misfolded protein that does not have DNA or RNA
What environmental factors influence bacterial growth? temperature, O2 requirements, CO2 requirements, pH requirements, osmotic pressure
What is an obligate aerobe? bacteria uses O2 and cannot survive without O2
What is a facultative anaerobe? uses O2, but does not require for survival
What is an obligate anaerobe? does not use O2 and cannot survive in the presence of O2
What is a canophile? requires CO2 at higher levels than atmospheric conditions
What is a neutrophile? optimum pH 5.5-8
What is an acidophile? optimum pH 0-5.5
What is a alklinophile? optimum pH 8-11.5
What is a halophile? can survive in high salt concentrations
What is an osmotolerant bacteria? tolerates a wide range of solutions
What is a barophile? survives in pressures greater than the atmosphere
What is a psychrophile? optimum temp <15 degrees, survives at 0 degrees
What is a facultative psychrophile? optimum temp >20 degrees, survives at <20 degrees
What is a mesophile? optimum temp 20 degrees to 40 degrees
What is a thermoduric bacteria? optimum temp 20 degrees to 40 degrees, can survive at higher temps
What is a thermophile? optimum temp of 45 degrees to 80 degrees
What is a hyperthermophile? optimum temp of 80 degrees to 250 degrees
What are the levels of protein structure? Primary- peptide bonds Secondary- hydrogen bonds- alpha helix and beta pleated sheet Tertiary- hydrogen and disulfide bonds- all proteins go thru at least tertiary structure Quatenary- only occurs in some proteins,interaction of multiple polypeptides
Why is protein structure important? structure equals function
What are enzymes? proteins which act as catalysts
Why are enzymes important? they are needed for reactions to occur quickly in order to sustain life
How do enzymes work? they lower the activation energy required for the chemical reaction to take place- enzymes are specific!
What are cofactors? inorganic molecules(usually metal ions) which activate enzyme, bring active site and substrate together
What are coenzymes? organic molecules if needed in diet called vitamins, help in altering the substrate (removing chemical group from one substrate and adding it to another)
What molecule is the cells energy currency? ATP
What is the difference between catabolism and anabolism? catabolism is breaking apart molecules and releasing energy (exergonic) anabolism is the building up molecules and consuming energy (endogonic)
What are the 3 steps fo aerobic respiration? glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain
What is the purpose of aerobic respiration? to obtain energy for use
What is fermentation? anaerobic respiration which is the response you need to recycle NAD molecules
With respect to energy production why is fermentation less favorable than aerobic respiration? glycolysis is the only step used to give rise to ATP- only 2 ATP produced
What is a gene? segment of DNA which codes for RNA or a protein
What is an allele? version of a gene
What is genotype? genetic makeup
What is phenotype? physical traits expressed from the genotype
How is genetic information stored in DNA? the sequence of nucleotides is the genetic information- chromosomes are packaged DNA- DNA is wound around histones and condensed
What type of replication does DNA undergo? semi-conservative method
What is transcription? making RNA from DNA
What is translation? making proteins from RNA
Why is rRNA important? in combination with proteins make up ribosomes
Why is tRNA important? complex folding plays role in translation- brings appropriate amino acids- anticodon
Why is mRNA important? carries the message- transcribed version of the gene- carries codons
How does genetic variation arise in a population? phenotype is directly related to the sequence of DNA (variations arise by mutations which are a change in the genetic code)
What is a spontaneous mutation? random change in DNA due to errors in replication due to an unknown cause
What are induced mutations? result from exposure to a known mutagen or physical/chemical agent that interacts with DNA in a disruptive manner
Do mutations at the DNA level always result in a change at the protein level? No- silent mutations are substitutions of nucleotides which alter the nucleotide base but does not change the amino acid
How does the cell combat against mutations? repair mechanisms such as polymerase I which proofreads DNA during replication, and after replication mismatch repair, excision repair, and light repair
Are mutations always harmful? no, some may be mutual or beneficial
What is biotechnology? the use of DNA, genes, or genetically altered organisms in commercial production- learning about genomes, not changing genetic engineering- is the direct and deliberate modification of an organism's genome
What are some examples of how we utilize biotechnology? diagnosis of pathogens, identify types of cancer, identify genetic lesions, and information to identify individuals
With respect to killing microorganisms which organisms exhibit the highest level of resistance? highest- prions and endospores lowest- most bacterial vegetative cells, most fungal spores, fungal hyphae, enveloped viruses, yeasts and most protozoans
What is the difference between sterilization and disinfection? sterilization destroys or removes all living m/o including viruses and endospores disinfection is a chemical or physical process used to destroy vegetative pathogens(not endospores)
How is death characterized in microorganisms? when a microorganism has a permanent loss of reproductive capabilities in an optimum environment
What are the modes of action for many antimicrobial agents? disrupt cell membrane, digest cell wall, disrupt the synthetic processes(transcription, translation, and replication), disrupt protein synthesis, irreversibly binding DNA
What are the physical methods we use to control microbial growth? Heat(dry and moist)and radiation,- moist, steam under pressure, non-pressurized steam, boiling water
Why is moist heat more effective than dry heat? can acheive cell death at lower temps than dry heat- causes denaturation of proteins
How do we achieve temps greater than 100 degrees C when using water? autoclave(steam under pressure), increase pressure temp at wchich water boils increases allowing higher temps
What is pasteurization? not sterilization- moist heat is used to kill agents of infection without affecting flavor
Do all chemical antimicrobials result in sterilization? no
What is chemotherapy? using chemicals in therapy
What are antibiotics? the metabolic products of aerobic bacteria and fungi- their production allows producing bacteria to enjoy less competition
For which microorganisms is selective toxicity easist to acheive? bacteria
For which microorganisms is selective toxicity hardest to acheive? fungi, heminthes, viruses
How is antibiotic resistance acquired? an adaptive response in which m/o mutations begin to tolerate an amt of drug that would ordinarily be inhibitory- spontaneous mutations in critical chromosomal genes- acquisition of new genes via transfer from another species
Why is antibiotic resistance on the rise? indiscriminate use of antibiotics, using antibiotics for viral infections, broad spectrum antibiotics, export of antimicrobials to other countries
Why is resident flora important? microbes that engage in mutual or commensal associations- colonize the body but remain on the outer surfaces- includes bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and animals, beneficial becaues prevents overgrowth of harmful microbes
When is resident flora initiated? first exposure when fetal membrane breaks just before birth- exposed through birth canal- handling and feeding continue to introduce what will become normal flora
What is the difference between a true pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen? true pathogens are able to cause disease in a healthy individual, opportunistic disease only affects immunocompromised individuals
Does the portal of entry affect the disease symptoms/progression? the portal of entry by which m/o gains access to sterile tissues plays a major role in the disease type or symptoms
What are virulence factors? structures of characteristics of a microbe that contributes to the diseases- virulence is the degree of pathogenicity (capsules, toxins, etc...)
What is a reservoir? primary residence in which a pathogen originates
What is a source? can be same or different from reservoir, is the individual or object from which an infection is acquired
What is a vector? when animals are the living reservoir and source
What is a biological vector? vector involved in part of the pathogens lifestyle
What is a mechanical vector? vector only carries the pathogen
What are nosocomial infections? infections that result from treatment in the hospital, but is secondary to the original condition (appears more than 48 hours after initial admittance into the hospital) Occur due to surgical procedures, contact with sick ppl, antimicrobial use
Define sporadic disease random disease prevalence
Define epidemic disease disease with steady frequency over long period of time in certain geographic area
Define epidemic disease prevalence of a disease increases beyond what is expected
Define pandemic disease epidemic which crosses continents
What is specific immunity? must be acquired and provides specific resistance to infection from a specific species
What is non-specific immunity? present at birth- responds to a general class of m/o
What is considered the 1st line of defense? normal flora, skin barriers, mucous membranes, stomach acid, hair follicles, nose hairs, flushing actions, tears, saliva, mucous flow, sneezing, sweat, vomiting, defecation- sebaceous secretions, lysosomes,genetic resistance
What is considered the 2nd line of defense? protective cells and fluid, inflammation, and phagocytosis(non-specific)
What is considered the 3rd line of defense? acquired with exposure to foreign substances, produces protective antibodies and creates memory cells(specific)
What is the blood composed of? plasma and blood cells
What is the role of WBCs? play a role in immunity
What is the role RBCs? transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues
What cells are lymphocytes? agranulocytes (B and T lymphocytes) produce antibodies and attack specific foreign particles. Involved in specific immunity
What role does the lymphatic system play in immunity? serves as site for development of immune cells and immune reactions
What are the primary lymphatic organs? site of origin and maturation of lymphocytes- thymus gland and bone marrow
What are the secondary lymphatic organs? circulatory organs where encounters with microbes take place- lymph nodes, spleen, MALT, SALT, GALT (where lymphocytes gather for the first stick against microbes)
What is the inflammatory response? vascular changes, edema, fever, redness, warmth, swelling, pain- caused by increased circulation, increased fluid flow, and stimulation of nerve endings
Why is the inflammatory response important? results in bringing immune components to the site of injury- begins process of repairing tissues and begins with the destruction of foreign molecules
What is phagocytosis? ingesting and eliminating materials- survey tissue and identify microbes, particulate matter, and injured cells- ingest and eliminate these materials- extract immunogenic info from the foreign matter
What immunity cells perform phagocytosis? Neutrophils- react early- engulf m/o and other small matter Macrophages- dereived from monocytes- scavenge and process foreign substances to prepare them for reactions with B and T lymphocytes- clean up big messes
What is an antigen? antibody generator- stimulate response by the B and T cells- usually proteins or polysaccharides on or inside cells-not PAMPs(molecules shared by many microbes that stimulate non-specific response)Highly individual which stimulate specific immune response
What is an epitope? small fragment on the antigen which is the primary signal that the molecule is foreign
What is an antibody? large protein molecule evoded in response to a specific antigen that interacts with that specific antigen
What do B cells do? have immunoglobulins for receptors, bind free antigens- act as antibodies do to antigens- B cells produce antibodies
What is opsonization? When B cells produce antibodies that coat microbes or particles so they are more readily recognized by phagocytes
What is agglutination? When B cells produce antibodies that cross-link cells or particles into large clumps making it easier to destroy
What is neutralization? When B cells produce antibodies that bind surface receptors on virus(preventing attachment) or on active site of a microbial enzyme(inhibiting function)
What do T cells do? TCR(receptors) bind processed antigens together with the MHC molecules on the cells that present antigens to them- also have CD receptors which are involved in cell communication and cell adhesion- do not release antibodies, interact with cell
What are T helper cells? CD4 receptors- activate other immune cells, B cells, macrophages, etc...
What are cytotoxic T cells? CD8 receptors- attacks and kills specific target cells by secreting perforins and granzymes- punch holes in target cell and digests the proteins- kill virally infected cells, cancer cells, foreign animal and human cells
What is hypersensitivity? altered or exaggerated immune response that is manifested by inflammatory or over activated symptoms Type I,II, and II involve B cell responses Type IV- involves T cell responses
What is the difference between autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiency diseases? an overactive immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, while immunodeficiency disease is due to an underactive immune system and can be caused by genetic disorders, infection, or artifical agents such as chemo or radiation
Where do staph live? skin and mucous membranes
What kinds of diseases does strep cause? localized- impetigo, erysipelas, pharyngitis, tonsillitis systemic- scarlet fever, septicemia, pneumonia, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome Rheumatic fever( joint pain, heart damage), acute glomerulonephritis
What kinds of diseases does Neisseria cause? gonorrhea and meningitis
What is the gram reaction of Neisseria? gram negative cocci (bean shaped) usually in pairs
Whcih bacteria from endospores? Gram positive bacilli- bacillus and clostridium
What types of diseases are caused by gram positive rods? antrhax, gas gangrene, CDAD(gut), tetnus, food poisoning, listeria monocytogenes, corneybacterium, diptheria, tb, leprosy
Which bacteria are acid fast? Mycobacterium- have mycolic acids found in its cell wall
What are enterics? gram negative non-spore forming rods usually found in the intestines of animals, but also in soil, decaying matter, and water
What are coliforms? enterics that are gram negative non-spore forming rods that ferment lactose- not considered true pathogens but some are pathogenic
What types of illness do enterics generally cause? GI illnesses
What insect vectors play important roles in microbial diseases? ticks, louse, flea, sand fly, tsetse fly, kissing bugs
What forms do fungi take on? hyphae(filamentous form), mycelium(mass of hyphae), yeast(single celled fungi)
Which form of fungi is most invasive? yeast(ascomycota)
What is the difference between a true fungal pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen? True exhibit thermal dimorphism opportunistic do not show dimorphism, not very invasive or virulent
What causes Ohio Valley Fever? histoplasma capsulatum- fungi
What diseases are caused by protozoans? E. histolytica, Naegleria fowleri, and acanthamoeba(brain infections), intestinal ciliate, trichomoniasis, giardia, trypanosoma brucei(african sleeping sickness), t.cruzi(chagas), leishmania, plasmodium, toxoplasma, cryptosporidium, toxoplasma gondii
Where are amoebas found? contaminated food or water
What does plasmodium cause? malaria- symptoms of fatigue, aches, nausea, chills, fever- leads to hemolytic anemia and organ enlargement due to the lysed red blood cells
Where do many worm pathogens develop? enter the mouth, move to intestines, develop and spread to other organs or they may burrow directly into the skin
How do worm pathogens cause symptoms? tissue damage occurs due to feeding, toxic secretions, and organ blockages, which can result in swelling of organs, hemorrhage, weight loss, and anemia
How do viral infections lead to cancer? introduction of viral oncogenes- viral genome insertion which activates an oncogene- viral infection result in uncontrolled cell division due to machinery take over
How are viruses categorized? enveloped or naked, capsid shape, nucleic acid type ssDNA(parvoviruses), dsDNA, ssRNA, dsRNA(reoviruses) RNA may be segmented or non segmented
Created by: 1656878667