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Philosophy101G Exam4

Vocabulary words from Does The Center Hold

logos (1)A Greek term meaning "word" or "study" derived from the English term "logic." (2) In Plato,a term designating the rational justification of beliefs.(3)Opposed to Mythos, it designates a scientific account to the world.
Nihilism as an ontological view the theory that nothing exists; as a moral view, the theory that there are no values or that nothing deserves to exist.
marxism a political or philosophical doctrine based on the writings of Karl Marx: politically a form of communism, philosophically a form of materialism know as dialectical materialism.
materialism the ontological view that all reality can be shown to be material in nature.
meno's paradox an epistemological paradox set forth by Meno in the Platonic dialogue of the same name: How is it possible to seek knowledge? If one does not know what one is looking for, one will not recognize it if one finds it.
metaethics if ethics is "first order" analysis of morality(What must we do to fulfill our duty?),metaethics is a"second order"(what is the meaning of the word "duty")is the analysis of the meaning of moral concepts and of the logic of moral argumentation.
metaphysics the branch of philosophy that attempts to construct a general speculative worldview: a complete, systematic, account of all reality and experience, usually involving epistemological, an ontology, an ethics and an aesthetics.
methodological doubt (or radical doubt) the name of the philosophical method employed by Descartes to discover the absolutely certain foundations of all knowledge. Every belief that can be doubted should be doubted until one arrives at a belief that itself is indubitable.
mimesis literally,"imitation" or "copy" but in aesthetics, the doctrine that art in its main function in imitative of reality, ideality, or possibility.
mind-brain identity theory the ontological view that mind and brains are not two different things; rather, all references to the mind and mental states are really reference to the brain and brain states.
minimal state the social idea of theorist such as Robert Nozick, the only rights and obligations a government has are protecting persons and property of citizens, punishing offenses, and taxing its citizen to finance these activities.
mode a property of an essential property. For example, for Descartes, "thought" is an essential property of "mind" and "understanding" is a property of thought.
monism the ontological view that only one entity exist, or only one kind of entity exist.
moral egoism a theory of motivation according to which the motive behind all acts ought to be self interest.
moral realism the ethical view that there are moral facts that can be the basis of moral judgements. Therefore moral judgement need not be subjective,or expressions of preference, or projections from the human mind.
mysticism the view that a special experience can transcend ordinary rational procedures and provide a direct intuition of the presence of God or an extrarational insight into the ultimate truth.
mythos the whole body of myths, legends, and folktales that attempt to make sense of the world by placing it in a narrative context tracing things back to their supernatural origins.
naive realism the prephilosophical epistemology and ontological attributed to the person in the street, according to which perceptual data in the mind accurately represents the external world as it actually is.
nativism the psychological or epistemological view that there are certain innate ideas, principles, or structures in the mind that organize the data of consciousness.
necessary condition X is a_______of Y if Y cannot exist without X. For example, fire cannot exist without oxygen, so oxygen is a _________.
occlusion shape objective geometric shape of a figure that is relative to the line of vision, producing visual phenomena such as the foreshortening of the body when seen feet first. Originally suggested in optics, by Euclid, to defend the idea of objectivism in art
Ockham's razor (or Occam's razor) a principle of simplification derived from a medieval philosopher, according to which if there are two competing theories, both of which account for all the observable data, the simpler of the two is the preferable theory.
ontological argument an a priori attempt to prove God's existence by showing that, from the very concept of God, his existence can be deduced.
ordinary language a strong movement in Anglo-American analytic philosophy, especially in the 1960s and 1970s, that saw philosophy's main task as the conceptual and logical analysis of ordinary language as it related to philosophical problems.
organicism the ontological view that reality is more like an organism than like a machine, that the whole is more real than any of the parts and that the parts are dependent on the whole for their reality.
ontology theory of being. the branch of philosophy pursuing such questions as: What is real? What is the difference between appearance and reality? What is the relation between mind and body? Are numbers and concepts real, or are only physical objects real?
pantheism the view that everything is divine, that God's "creation" is in fact identical with God: from the Greek pan (all)and theos (god)
paradigm shift movement in intellectual history when the key conceptual apparatus of an age gives way to a new ones
phenomenology philosophical school created by Edmund Husseri employing a method of analysis that purports to arrive at the pure data of consciousness and thereby provide the foundation for epistemology and ontology.
philosophy of art the branch of philosophy that studies the aesthetic features of art and the judgments about those features.
logic the branch of philosophy that studies the structure of valid interference; a purely formal discipline, interested in the structure of argumentation rather than in its content.
logical possibility if its idea contains no self contradiction(such as the idea of a one million sided figure). Conversely, if its idea does contain a self contradiction(such as the the idea of a four sided circle).
logical positivism (or logical empiricism) a school of philosophy that flourished between the two world wars according to which the only cognitively meaningful utterances are those of science.
logical entailment a relation of logical necessity between two concepts or propositions.If concept X implies concept Y,then X logically entails Y. For example the concept "brother" logically entails the concepts "sibling" and "male"
logical construct a term from the twentieth century empiricism naming an entity that can be inferred from sense data. For example, the belief that a table exist independently from our perception is based on an inference drawn from our perceptions.
logical behaviorism the epistemological and ontological view that all meaningful mentalistic terms can ultimately be traced back to some observable behavior and not back to some purely mental facts.
sense data is supposedly that which is perceived immediately by any one of the senses prior to interpretation by the mind.
proposition is whatever is asserted by a sentence. The sentence "it's raining," "Es Regnet," and "Llueve all assert the same proposition.
sufficient condition P is a_______of Q if the presence of P guarantees the presence of Q. Ex, the presence of mammary glands in an animal is a__________for calling that animal a mammal.
Created by: newmexpj