Busy. Please wait.

Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the email address associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know (0)
Know (0)
remaining cards (0)
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

History 1 Terms

Terms needed for HIstory 1 an Overview as well as an example

Answers (Real & Tonal) The 2nd statement of a subject in a fugue usually pitched a 5th or 4th above the subject. When it is an exact transposition of the subject to the dominant, it is called a Real Answer. any other way is a Tonal Answer. E.g. Prelude & Fugue in C-
Baroque Baroque is derived from the Portuguese "barroco",an irregular shaped pearl used in jewelry at the time. First used to describe the overly ornate art of the era,now applied to art, architecture, and music of the period c.1600-1750 E.g Prelude & Fugue in C-
Basso Continuo Italian for continuous bass. A Baroque performance practice providing the harmonic framework. It usually involves 2 instruments/performers, 1 playing the notated bass line, and 1 realizing the harmonies indicated by the figured bass.E.g. Handel Messiah
Binary Form 2-part AB from based on a statement and departure, without a return to the opening. Part A usually ends with an open cadence. Frequently used in Baroque dances & keyboard music as well and Classical orchestral music. E.g. Mozart Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
Counterpoint A term derived from Latin meaning point(note) against point(note). It means the combining of 2 or more melodic lines. It is the same as polyphony and was dominant in the baroque era. E.g. Bach Prelude and Fugue in C-
Counter-Subject In a fugue, a secondary theme heard against the subject: a counter theme. It accompanies the entries of the subject and answer. E.g. Bach Prelude and Fugue in C-
Da capo Aria Lyric solo song in ternary form common in Baroque operas,oratorios and cantatas.Composers usually didn't write part 3,writing da capo "from the head" at the end of part 2 telling the performer to repeat the part 1 with ornamentation.E.g. Handel Messiah
Doctrine of Affection A Baroque philosophy inspired by ancient Greek/Roman writers.Refers to the emotional state of the soul.In Baroque an entire piece or movement would be built on a single affection.E.g.Vivaldi Spring
Drone A sustained bass note for harmonic support, a common feature of some folk music.
Episode A fugue starts with a subject stated in turn by all voices(exposition)then,a connecting passage serves as an area of rest between statements & subject.It's always modulating,usually sequential & based on elements in the exposition E.g Prelude&Fugue in C-
Equal Temperament A tuning system developed in the Baroque period where the Octave is divided into 12 equal semitones allowing sic to be performed in tune no matter what key. E.g. Prelude and Fugue in C-
Figured Bass A type of musical shorthand developed in the Baroque era. Numbers are put below the bass line showing harmonic progression realized by the basso continuo. It provides structure for guided improvisation. Vivaldi La Primavera
French Overture Baroque orchestra genre as intro to opera,oratorio,ballet or suite.First used by Lully it often has 2 parts,a slow start often repeated in homophony with dotted rhythms then with a fast fugal part.Can have a short return of the start.E.g.Handel Messiah
Fugue A highly structured, imitative contrapuntal composition a single theme or subject prevails. It consists of an exposition, middle entries and a closing section.E.g.Bach Prelude and Fugue in C-
Homophonic A texture with a single line of melody with an accompanying harmony unlike polyphony where there are 2 or more melodic lines.E.g. Handel Messiah
Homorhythmic Texture Texture when all voices or lines move together in the rhythm. It delivers the text with clarity and emphasis. E.g. Handel Messiah
Libretto The text of an opera, oratorio or cantata usually written by a librettist other than the composer. E.g. Bizet Carmen
Melisma Melodic style characterized by many notes sung into a single text syllable. It demonstrates vocal virtuosity and often serves to highlight key words. E.g. Handel Messiah
Oratorio Large scale dramatic choral genre made in Baroque based on a serious subject often biblical story performed in a concert setting without scenery,costumes and acting.The action takes place by the recitatives,arias,ensembles and choruses.E.g.Handel Messiah
Ostinato Italian for persistent. A short melodic,rhythmic or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a section of one. E.g. Vivaldi La Primavera.
Pedal Point A sustained repeated note usually the tonic or dominant, usually in the bass above the other parts or harmonies move or change. E.g.Bizet Carmen
Polyphonic Texture 2 or more independent melodic lines heard simultaneous. Also called contrapuntal texture or counterpoint. E.g. Handel Messiah
Prelude A short keyboard work in improvisatory style, often paired with a fugue. E.g. Prelude and Fugue in C-
Recitativo Accompagnato Recitativo is a speech like declamatory style of singing that allows for greater connection with the text.It's often used in opera,oratorio,and cantata to advance the plot or action.Recitativo Accompagnato is accompanied by an orchestra.E.g.Handel Messiah
Recitativo Secco It's a speech like declamatory style of singing that allows for greater connection with the text.It's often used in oratorio,cantata and opera to advance the plot/action.Recitativo Secco is supported by continuo and moves with freedom.E.g Handel Messiah
Ripieno Italian for full. A term used to denote the full orchestra on a Baroque concerto. E.g. Vivaldi La Primavera.
Ritornello Form Means return.A structure employed in the first and 3rd movement of a Baroque concerto.The opening passage(ritornello)played in the full orchestra is restated throughout the movement,alternating with soloists playing new material.E.g.Vivaldi La Primavera
Solo Concerto A popular instrumental genre for soloist and orchestra intended to showcase the virtuosity of the soloist. Generally in 3 movements:Fast-Slow-Fast, often employed ritornello form in the Baroque era. E.g. Vivaldi La Primavera
Stretto Means to tighten.A fugal device where the answer's entry occurs before the subject is completed, overlapping it.The effect is one of the voices crowding each other causing a raising of tension bringing the fugue to its climax.E.g.Bach Prelude&Fugue in D+
Subject The initial statement of the main theme of a fugue in the tonic key. E.g. Bach Prelude and Fugue in C-
Ternary Form A 3 part ABA form, section B usually created a contrast in key and/or material, often used in Baroque arias.Common in Classical and Romantic periods in short pieces like songs and dances.Also in the 2nd and 3rd movements of symphonies.E.g. Handel Messiah
Terraced Dynamics Expressive Baroque music type in which volume levels shifted abruptly without gradual crescendos and decrescendos. E.g. Vivaldi La Primavera
Tierce de Picardie French term for Picardy the 3rd. Use of major triad for the final cadence of a composition in a minor key. giving the ending a greater sense of finality. Common in Baroque music. E.g. Prelude and Fugue in C- Bach
Absolute Music/Pure Music Music without extra unmusical relation like stories,paintings,etc.Generic titles reflect genre of music/forms like string quartet.In absolute music form,it's very important there's no prescribed story or text to hold music together.Haydn String Quartet
Chamber Music Music for small ensembles, one player to a part usually with no conductor. Classical era was the golden age of chamber music such as string quartet, trio sonata and quintet.E.g.Haydn String Quartet
Classicism The adherence to the principles/style characteristics of literature and art of ancient Rome and Greece. Characterized by order, objectivity, and harmonious propitiation.E.g. Beethoven Symphony No.5 in C-
Coda Latin for tail. A concluding section usually added to the sonata form to reaffirm the tonic key and bring movements to a close.E.g. Mozart Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
Cyclical Structure Musical material(theme) heard in one movement returns in a later movement as a kind of motto or unifying thread in a multi-movement work like a symphony.E.g.Beethoven Symphony No.5 in C- each movement has a reference to the 3 shorts 1 long.
Development The 2nd main section of the sonata-allegro form in which themes form the exposition are manipulated with fragmentation,sequential treatment or changes in orchestration.Increased harmonic tension is made through modulations. New themes might be introduced.
Exposition The 1st main section of a sonata-allegro form which 2 contrasting themes are presented,1 lyrical,1 rhythmic.There's a transition/bridge leading from the 1st theme often tonic to the 2nd often dominant/relative major.E.g.Beethoven Symphony No.5 in C- Op.67
Motive A short melodic or rhythmic idea. The smallest unit is used to form the melody or theme. E.g. Beethoven Symphony No.5 in C- Op.67
Menuet(Minuet)and Trio Minuet's a graceful dance of French origin in moderate 3/4 developed in the Baroque era,a trio's a contrasting middle section.Minuit(A)and trio(B)are in ABA form,usually found in the 3rd movement of Classical sonata cycle.E.g.Haydn Quinten Quartet
Recapitulation The 3rd section of a sonata-allegro form which the 1st and 2nd themes of the Exposition are played in tonic. Then followed by the coda, whose function is to bring the movement to a close.E.g. Beethoven Symphony No.5 in C- Op.67
Rocket Theme A rapidly ascending melody outlining an arpeggio, often used as a dramatic opening motive in Classical works. A device of Mannheim contribution.E.g. Symphony No.5 in C- Op.67
Rondo Form Classical formal structure in A-B-A-C-A or similar pattern often used in sonata cycle. The 1st A section in tonic key is heard 3 times or more alternating with the other contrasting sections.E.g.Petrushka
Rounded Binary Form A binary form ||:A:||:B A:||in which the material form Section A returns within Section B with each section AB normally repeated. A-A-B-B.E.g.Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
Scherzo and Trio Italian for jest/joke in A-B-A form A:Scherzo B:Trio in 3/4 meter. Beethoven used it to replace the scherzo to replace the minuet in the 3rd movement of the sonata cycle.E.g. Symphony No.5 in C- Op.67
Serenade Evening music.Classical multi-movement orchestral genre for small orchestra or chamber ensemble consisting of strings/wind instruments combining elements of symphony and chamber music.Entertainment performed for the aristocracy.E.g.Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
Sonata Cycle General term in the Classical era describing the multi-movement structure of symphonies,string quartets,concertos and sonatas.Sonata form is used as the opening movement of the cycle,often returns in the finale or other movements.E.g.Haydn Quinten Quartet
Sonata Form Also called sonata-allegro. Classical formal structure used in the 1st movement of the sonata cycle,often in the finale and other movements. Consists of Exposition-2+themes,Development-departure and Recapitulation-return.E.g.Mozart Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
String Quartet Most popular chamber ensemble in Classical era:2 violins,viola,cello.Genre refers to composition for the ensemble,1st movement usually in sonata form,whole work follows 4 movement scheme of the sonata cycle:fast-slow-medium-fast.E.g.Haydn Quinten Quartet
Symphony A multi-movement orchestra work developed in the 18th century, especially by Haydn,Mozart and Beethoven. Typically in 4 movements, based on sonata cycle, generally includes at least one movement in sonata form.E.g.Beethoven Symphony No.5 in c- op.67
Theme and Variations Compositional procedure when a theme is stated and then undergoes a series of transformations.Changes can be made to melody,harmony,rhythm,orchestration.It's often used in the slow 2nd movement of the sonata cycle.E.g.Beethoven Symphony No.5 in C- Op.67
Viennese School Refers to the musical style of Haydn,Mozart, Beethoven and their contemporaries in the late 18th century in Vienna. None were born in Vienna but spent all their careers there and died there. Schubert may also be included.E.g. Mozart Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
Aria Italian for air a solo song with orchestral accompaniment heard in opera, oratorio or cantata. Highly emotional and often virtuosic may have lyrical drama or character.E.g. Bizet Carmen
Art Song The musical setting of a poem for solo voice generally with piano accompaniment. E.g. Schubert Erlkönig
Chromaticism Extensive use of notes outside the prevailing key signature, increasing use for heightened expression in 19th century music.E.g. Chopin Polonaise in Ab+ Op.53
Cloches French for bells,a pitched percussion instrument. Usually hollow and cup shaped which has a ringing sound when struck with a mallet of hammer.E.g. Symphonie Fantastique
Col Legno Italian for with the wood. Novel string effect invented by Berlioz requiring players to tap the string with the wooden parts of their bows to create a dry,hollow sound imitating the dancing of skeletons.E.g. Symphonie Fantastique
Dies Irae Latin for Day of Wrath. A monophonic chant melody from the late Middle Ages drawn form he Roman Catholic Requiem. 19th century audiences would have associated tune with funeral services. E.g. Symphonie Fantastique Berlioz
Durchkomponiert (Thorough Composed) A song structure that's composed beginning to end without repetition of whole sections.Therefore melody,harmony,and piano accompaniment are able to reflect the text.In contrast to strophic form where every stanza is sung to the same music.E.g.Erlkönig
Exoticism in Music An important feature of 19th century Romantic musical style. The fascination of foreign lands and cultures like Spain and Japan are evoked through melody, harmony and orchestration.E.g. Carmen Bizet
Habañera A slow Cuban dance-song in duple meter originated from Havana. Its characteristic rhythmic motive is often used as an ostinato. Gained popularity in the 19th century in Europe and Latin America. Influenced the Argentine tango.E.g. Carmen Bizet
Idée Fixe Meaning fixed idea in French, idée fixe, devised by Berlioz is a recurring theme that undergoes transformation(harmony,rhythm, meter, tempo, dynamics, etc) and serves as a unifying thread in a multi-movement composition.EA.g. Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique
Lied OR Lieder A German art song of the 19th century. The musical setting of a German poem for solo voice and usually piano accompaniment. The use of word painting is common.E.g. Schubert Erlkönig
Monophonic Texture Mono means one. Music consisting of a single line of melody with no harmony or accompaniment. E.g. Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique
Nationalism in Music An important element of 19th century style in which patriotism was expressed through music by the use of folk songs and dance, myths and legends, historical events. E.g. Chopin Polonaise in A flat Major
Opera Drama that is sung, originating from Italy around 1600, combining vocal and instrumental music with drama, visual arts and often dance. Its components include recitatives, arias, ensembles and choruses. E.g. Carmen Bizet
Ophicleide A 19th century brass instrument now obsolete, predecessor of the tuba. E.g. Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique
Polonaise Stately Polish aristocratic dance in triple meter with characteristic rhythmic figure,transformed by Chopin into virtuosic piano work.It's often proud and majestic in character in which Chopin found an outlet to his patriotic feeling.E.g.Polonaise in Ab+
Portamento Italian for carrying. A technique of sliding smoothly and rapidly from one note to the next.Originally a voccal technique.E.g. Berlioz SYmphonie Fantastique
Prelude(In Opera) An introductory to an opera replacing the traditional overture. Has no prescribed form but often includes themes heard later on in the opera.E.g. Carmen Bizet
Program Music A trend in 19th century music. Instrumental music with extra-musical associations like poems and a descriptive title that identifies the connection.Some works may include written text or program provided by the composer.E.g.Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique
Program Symphony A 19th century multi-movement orchestral work with a descriptive title, programmatic elements aor an accompanying text or program provided.E.g. Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique
Romantiscism 19th century style in literature, art, and music as reaction against classicism. In it emotional and picturesque expression appeared to be more important than form and structure. E.g. Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique
Rubato Italian for robbed time. An expressive device of interpreting music in which strict time is replaced by rhythmic flexibility giving music a qualtiy of caprice.
Verismo Italian for realism, Opera styke popular in Italy in the 1890's and early 1900's where the story lines project a rough realism which usually culminate in a violent ending.E.g. Puccini Madama Butterfly
Antique Cymbals Pirched percussion instruments dating back to ancient Egypt and Greece,also in modern day Indonesia. A set of 2 small brass disks that produce a gentle ringing sound when struck together.E.g.Debussy Prelude to "The Afternoon Of A Faun"
Arch Form A sectional structure based on repitition in reverse order such as ABCBA so that the overall form is symmetric, most often around a central movement.E.g. Alexina Louie Distant Memories
Atonality The absence of tonality(a centre key)in a work by giving the 12 tones of the chromatic scale equal inportance. Atonal music is charecterized by unresolved dissonences. It is associated with modern music.E.g. Alexina Louie Distant Memories
Ballet A staged presentation of a highly stylized type of group or solo dancing with music, costumes and scenery which often interprets a story.First developed in the 17th century at the court of louis XIV. E.g. Petrushka Stravinsky
Berceuse French for lullaby. The instrumental lullaby, most often for piano, is charecterized by a softm rhythmic ostinato that suggests a gentle and steady rocking feel. E.g.Alexina Louie Distant Memories
Cha-Cha(ChaChaCha) A popular Cuban dance of the early 1950s, derived from the mambo. It's name derived from the charecteristic rhythm sound of the güiro used in the music.E.g. Berstein West Side Story
Changing Meter Shift of metrical groupings manifested through changes of time signature. Rapidly changing meters are charecterized as 20th century music.E.g. Stravinsky Petrushka
Choreography The art of designing the dance steps or movements of a ballet or musical. The creator is known as a choreographer.E.g. Petrushka Stravinsky
Flutter Tongue Roll of the tongue when playing a woodwind instrument as if sounding the letter "r". An innovative effect in the 20th century.E.g. Stravinsky The Rite of Spring
Folk Song A song of the people of culture or religion that reflects their outlook and life.Orally passed generation to generation with an unknown composer.It's easily sung by most people and can exist in many versions developed as it spread.E.g.Stravinsky Petrushka
Glissando Refers to the beautiful shimmering effect obtained by sliding rapidly over the strings of the harp or the keys of the piano so that every individual note is articulated.E.g. Debussy Prelude to"The Afternoom of a Faun"
Hemiola Greek term meaning the fifth implying the ratio 3:2. A temporary shift of metric accent, as notes grouped threes are momentarily grouped in twos or vise versa. E.g. West Side Story Berstein
Impressionism in Music A stlye of music that hints rather than states. Influenced by French painter Monet, Debussy used whole tone scales, cchromatic scales and pentatonic scales to convey moods rather then present a picture.E.g. Prelude to"The Afternoon of a Faun" Debussy
Mambo A dance of the Afro-Cuban origin popular in the 1940s and 50s. It's a fast and highly syncopated 4/4 meter rhythmic pattern usually charecterized by ostinatos as well as "riff" passages for wind instruments.E.g. Berstein West Side Story
Modal Scales The use of Middle Age and Renaissance scales in which the pattern of whole steps and half steps is different form the conventional major minor scales.Rediscovered by 20th centruy composers.E.g.Stravinsky Petrushka
Musical A unique American genre. A play with spoken dialogue but featuring musical numbers like songs, dances, and choruses. The staging is often spectacular.E.g. Berstein The West Side Story
Pentatonic Scale Scale of a 5-note pattern common in folk music of many Asian and European cultures.Can be found in Western Music as an example of exoticism.E.g. Stravinsky Petrushka
Petrushka Chord A dissonant polychord ised by Stravinsky in his ballet Petrushka consisting of a C+ and F#- arpeggio played together.Used as a signature theme for the two conflicting elements in Petrushka's charecter. Puppet and human.E.g Petrushka Stravinsky
Polyrhythm The stimulous use of 2 or more keys common in 20th century music.E.g. Stravinsky Petrushka
Primitivism Artistic work of the 20th century concentrating on nonurban cultures and untamed nature.In music an effect created largely through rhythm, powerful percussive sounds and altered tonal harmony.E.g. Stravinsky The Rite of Spring
Senza Misura An Italian musical term meaning without measure.Played freely, not in strict time.The music is played wothout a beat, time in seconds is given by the composer to measure how long it will take to play the bar.E.g. Alexina Louie Distant Memories
Symbolism French literary movement of late 19th century headed by symbolist poet Stéphanie Mallarmé.To him the poetrys function was to suggest,to present the symbol instead of describe realistically.Was interested in beauty of the sound of word itself.E.g.Debussy
Symphonic Poem One of the most poplular forms of orchestral program music, invented by Franz Liszt.It;s a single movement of work in free form with litarary of pictorial associations.Also known as tone poem. Debussy Prelude to "The Afternoon of a Faun"
Tritone The interval of an x4th or °5th so called because it consists of three whole tones.It's exactly half and octave and difficult to sing because of its sinister intence sound in Middle Ages it was known as devils music.E.g.Stravinsky Petrushka
Verse-Chorus Structure Common song structure in popular music.The verses develope the character/storyline and chorus acts as tuneful refrain.Verse melody hardly changes throughout song but lyrics change.Chorus contains song title and the most catchy melody.E.g.West Side Story
Whole-Tone Scale Non-traditional scale pattern consists of 6 different pitches built on wholesteps.Result is a fluid sequence of pitches that lack a pull towards tonic or point of rest.Common in late 19th early 20th century.E.g.Debussy Prelude to"The Afternoon of a Faun"
Created by: willow161