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Krause Ch.3

The Nutrients and Their Metabolism

Vocab. WordsDefinitions
acetyl coenzyme a (acetyl CoA) molecule produced by fatty acid oxidation
amino acid an organic compound containing an amino (NH2) group and a carboxyl (COOH) group; links with other amino acids to form proteins
amino acid score a method of protein evaluation in which the milligrams of the limiting essential amino acid in the test protein are divided by the milligrams of the same essential amino acid in the reference protein.
amylopectin a form of starch made up of highly branched glucose polymers
amylose a form of starch composed of smaller, linear molecules (10^5 to 10^6 daltons) that is less than 1% branched
antioxidant a substance that can inhibit reactions of free radicals such as reactive species of oxygen; used to describe vitamins C and E, come carotenoids, ubiquinones, and bioflavonoids
ascorbic acid vitamin C, a water soluble vitamin that plays essential roles in minteral metabolism and intracellular antioxidant functions; biosynthesized from glucose and most nonprimate species
beta-glucans (glcopyranose) polysaccharides that occur with branching, which makes them less linear than cellulose and therefore more soluble; found in oats and barley
beriberi neuropathy caused by thiamin deficiency
bioavailability the availability of a mineral within the small intestine for absorption and the actual absorption ( efficiency) of the mineral; implies retention of the mineral in the body and its use in cellular or tissue functions
bioflaconoids group of vitamin-like substances found in plants with antioxidant activities
biotin a sulfur-containing vitamin synthesized by microorganisms in the lower gastrointestinal tract.
calbindins calcium-binding proteins found in intestinal absorbing cells and other cells of the body
calcitrol hormonally active form of vit-D produced by the kidney; 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-[OH]2D3)
carnitine a required cofactor derived from the essential amino acids methionine and lysine that fcilitates transfer of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membranes and is essential for the oxidation of fatty acids
carotenoids yellow or red pigments found in carrots, sweet potatoes, leafy vegetables, milk fat, and egg yolk which can be converted into vit. A (retinol) in the body
ceruloplasmin a plasma protein that trnasports copper and acts as an oxidase (enzyme)
cellulose a CHO made of long, strait glucose polymers in beta-linkages that resists hydrolysis in the human digestive tract; dietary fiber
chiral carbon a carbon atom with four different atoms or groups attached, can form isomers
chitin a homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine in the exoskeleton of invertebrates;sometimes included in food products as a chitosan, a fiber component; possibly has a hypercholesterolemic effect in humans
cholecalciferol the form of the fat-soluble vit. D3, produced when 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin is photolysed by UV irradiation
cholesterol a setrol found in cell membranes of all animal tissues that is also necessary for production of bile and steroid hormones
Created by: izzyann1031