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Philosophy101G Exam1

Vocabulary words from Does the Center Hold.

a posteriori A belief, proposition, or argument is said to be a posteriori if its truth can be established only through observation. Classical empiricism was an attempt to show that all significant knowledge about the world is based on ta posteriori truths.
a priori A belief, proposition, or argument is said to be a priori if its truth can be established independently of observation. Definitions, the propositions of arithmetic, and the principles of logic are usually held to be priori.
aesthetics Sometimes used interchangeably with the term Philosophy of art, and sometimes as a broader concept that comprises discussion of both art and of those natural phenomena that provoke appreciation of their beauty or grandeur.
agnosticism A view that holds open the possibility that god exist but that claims we do not know, or do not know, whether in fact a deity exist.
aleatoric art Art in which unpredictability or chance is involved in its production.
analytic geometry The branch of mathematics created by Rene Descartes in which algebraic procedures are applied to geometry.
analytic philosophy the view, that in philosophy, logical analysis and analysis of meaning must be prior to the construction of philosophical theories about the world.
analytic proposition A proposition is analytic if its negation leads to a self contradiction, for example,"squares have four sides"is analytic because it's negation, "squares do not have four sides" is a self-contradiction.
anarchism The political doctrine according to which the state is both unnatural and unjustifiable because it necessarily violates the rights of individuals.
anomie A sociological term designating a condition in individuals or societies characterized by a loss of direction, meaning, values, and norms.
apocrypha Works, sayings,or acts misattributed to an important individual or an authoritative tradition when in fact they are inauthentic or fraudulent.
arete A term in ancient Greek philosophy usually translated as "virtue" though sometimes as "excellent" or "quality".
atheism The view that there is no God.
atomism ontological theory the view that the ultimate building blocks of reality are basic, irreducible particles of matter-Atoms. (This view is a version of materialism).
atomism epistemological theory the view that the ultimate building blocks of knowledge are basic, irreducible, perceptual units-sense data. (This view, called "physiological atomism" is a version of empiricism.)
axiology The general term for the theory of values. It incorporates aesthetics and ethics.
Bad faith A technical term in the philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre naming a state of human inauthenticity, a flight from responsibility, freedom, and anguish.
Behaviorism The theory that only observable, objective features of human or animal activity need be studied to provide an adequate scientific account of that activity.
Categorical imperative The name given by Immanuel Kant to a purported universal moral law: in one form,"So act that the maxim of your action could be willed as a universal law"; in another form, "So act as to treat humanity... always as an end,and never as merely a means".
Category-mistake a key philosophical error noted by the British ordinary language philosopher Gilbert Ryle wherein a term that belongs to one logical category is mistakenly categorized as belonging to another.Then faulty questions are asked based on the miscategorization.
Casual explanation A mechanical kind of explanation in which the object or event to be accounted for is rendered intelligible by demonstrating how that object or event follows necessarily from antecedent objects or events.
Cognitive science An interdisciplinary study involving philosophy, psychology, linguistics, and computer science, stressing the computational model of the mind.
Coherence theory of truth The theory that a proposition is true if it coheres with the body of all the other propositions taken to be true; that is, if it follows logically from those propositions, or supports them and is supported by them, or does not contradict any of them.
Communism The political theory that advocates the abolition of private property and asserts that goods must be held in common and that the ideal social unit is the commune.
Compatibilism The view that determinism does not exclude freedom or responsibility; rather, all three can coexist simultaneously in the same system. Sometimes called soft determinism.
Conceptual art A development in art during the last 40 years of the 20th century in which it is claimed that the technique, methods, and materials of production rather than the final artistic product are themselves the real work of art.
Conceptual truth A proposition expresses a conceptual truth if that truth is based on a merely logical relationship rather than on an empirical fact. For example "widows are female" is a conceptual truth.
Conceptualism the epistemological view that concepts are generalized ideas existing only in the mind but that they are derived and abstracted by the mind from real similarities and distinctions in nature.
Contingent a relation between two objects or ideas is contingent if one of the terms of the relationship could exist without the other.
Contractualism the ethical theory according to which morally right behavior and obligation should be determined by a hypothetical contract in which parties agree to accept certain standards as reasonable.
proposition is whatever is asserted by a sentence. The sentence "it's raining," "Es Regnet," and "Llueve all assert the same proposition.
empiricism the epistemological view that true knowledge is derived primarily from sense experience. For these philosophers, all significant knowledge is a posteriori or a priori.
rationalism the epistemological view that true knowledge is derived primarily from reason. Reason is conceived as the working of the mind on material provided by the mind itself.
innate ideas an idea present at birth,hence, a priori
philosophy of art the branch of philosophy that studies the aesthetic features of art and the judgments about those features.
metaphysics the branch of philosophy that attempts to construct a general speculative worldview: a complete, systematic, account of all reality and experience, usually involving epistemological, an ontology, an ethics and an aesthetics.
tautology if it is in some way repetitive or redundant. example, definitions are tautological because their predicates are equivalents of the term being defined.
ontology theory of being. the branch of philosophy pursuing such questions as: What is real? What is the difference between appearance and reality? What is the relation between mind and body? Are numbers and concepts real, or are only physical objects real?
materialism the ontological view that all reality can be shown to be material in nature.
epistemology theory of knowledge. The branch of philosophy that answers questions such as: What is knowledge? What, if any, can we know? What is the difference between opinion and knowledge?
sense data is supposedly that which is perceived immediately by any one of the senses prior to interpretation by the mind.
ethics moral philosophy. the branch of philosophy that answers questions such as: Is there such a thing as the good? What is "the good life?" Is there such a thing as absolute duty? Are valid moral arguments possible?
freedom exist if there is such a thing as free acts and free agents, that is, if some acts are performed in such a way that the authors of those acts could legitimately be held responsible for them.
hard behaviorism the view that there are no minds and that, therefore, psychology can study only "behaviors"--an ontological view as opposed to the merely methodological view of soft behaviorism.
soft behaviorism the view that there is no need to include "minds" in the scientific study of humans, whether or not the mind exist.
logical behaviorism the epistemological and ontological view that all meaningful mentalistic terms can ultimately be traced back to some observable behavior and not back to some purely mental facts.
ordinary language a strong movement in Anglo-American analytic philosophy, especially in the 1960s and 1970s, that saw philosophy's main task as the conceptual and logical analysis of ordinary language as it related to philosophical problems.
teleology the study of the evidence for the existence of purpose, design, and intentionality in both human and nonhuman domains.A teleological explanation is an explanation in terms of goals, purposes, and intentions.(from geek telos = goals)
functionalism a currently popular theory in the philosophy of mind according to which minds are not "things";rather they are systems capable of interacting with their environment through computational activity.
pragmatic theory of truth this theory asserts that to talk about the truth of a proposition is to talk about its power to "work," that is,its ability to put the individual who considers the proposition into a more satisfactory and effective relationship with the rest of the world.
marxism a political or philosophical doctrine based on the writings of Karl Marx: politically a form of communism, philosophically a form of materialism know as dialectical materialism.
determinism the view that every event occurs necessarily. Every event follows inevitably from the events that preceded it. There is no random in reality; rather all is law governed. Freedom doesn't exist or exists in such a way as to be compatible with necessity.
soft determinism also called compatibilism. the view that determinism is true but that freedom and responsibility can exist despite the truth of determinism.
Created by: newmexpj