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Micro metabolism ch5

prof.Khan notes

Metabolism The sum of all chemical reactions (anabolic and catabolic) within a living organism. Or An energy balance act. Or YIN-YANG
Anabolism or Synthesis Chemical reactions in which energy is used to synthesize large molecules from simpler components. Example: 1) Amino Acid + Amino Acid----> Dipeptid H2O 2) Capsule Synthesis in Bacteria Synthesis-deheydration- removing water
Catabolism or Hydrolysis The chemical breakdown of complex molecules into simpler substances. This process releases energy. example: 1) Dipeptide ---> Amino Acid, Amino Acid H20 - hydrolysis- adding water 2) Breakdown of capsule under unfavorable conditions
Enzymes (Organic Catalysts): ): Proteins produced by living cells that change the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. All enzymes are proteins.
Substrate: The substance on which enzyme works. chips
Active or Catalytic Site specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate.
Enzyme Structure: A number of enzymes are pure proteins (simple enzymes) however many enzymes (holoenzymes) consist of a protein portion (apoenzyme) and a non-protein portion (coenzyme or cofactor)
Holoenzymes consist of a protein portion (apoenzyme) and a non-protein portion (coenzyme or cofactor)
Coenzyme is an organic molecule such as: •Vitamin K -Used in electron transport chain •Folic Acid - Used in the synthesis of nucleic acids
Cofactor is an inorganic ion such as magnesium, zinc, or manganese.
The Mechanism of Enzymatic Action ( part one) 1. The substrate combines with active site of the enzyme. 2. A temporary intermediate compound forms called enzyme-substrate complex.
The Mechanism of Enzymatic Action ( part two) 3. The substrate molecule is transformed by: a. Breakdown of substrate molecule- catabolic b. Combining two substrate molecule together- anabolic c. Rearrangement of existing atoms - rearrangement
The Mechanism of Enzymatic Action ( part three) 4. The transformed substrate molecules, now called the product of the reaction, are released from the enzyme molecule. 5. The unaltered enzyme reacts with other substrate molecules.
Classification of Enzymes Enzymes can be classified into six categories according to the type of reaction they catalyze.
Class 1: Oxidoreductases Catalyze oxidation reduction reactions Example: Cytochrome Oxidase
Class 2: Transferases Move a group (C, N, P or S) from one substrate to another Example: Alanine Deaminase – one of the 20 amino acids
Class 3: Hydrolases Add water to break covalent bonds. Example: Sucrase
Class 4: Lyases Break covalent bonds without adding water. Example: Isocitrate Lyase citric acid
Class 5: Isomerases Rearrangement of atoms within a molecule. – with in the same molecule Example: Glucose-Phosphate Isomerase
Class 6: Ligases Join two molecules to form a larger molecule. Example: DNA-Ligase involeves in - DNA replication
Location of Enzyme 1. Exoenzymes (extracellular) 2. Endoenzymes (intracellular)
Regularity of Enzyme 1. Constitutive Enzymes 2. Inducible (adaptive)
Factors Influencing Enzymatic Activity a. Temperature b. pH c. Substrate Concentration
1- Competitive Inhibition: A molecule similar to a substrate can bind to an enzyme’s active site and prevents the formation of end products. Example: Replacement of Para-AminoBenzoic Acid (PABA) with sulfanilamide.
2- Noncompetitive Inhibition: Substances such as lead and other heavy metals(made outside the body/cell) attach to the enzyme at allosteric site and alter the shape of the active site. PERMENANT-it doesnt come off ; irreversible
3- Feedback Inhibition or End Product Inhibition: The inhibitor (end product-made in side thee cell) attaches to the allosteric site of the enzyme when it is plentiful and is released when it is in short supply. REVERSIBLE
4- Enzyme Repression (Genetic Control): End product binds with DNA and stops its production.
5- Enzyme Induction: Enzyme is synthesized only if the inducer (substrate is present).
Metabolic Pathways of Energy Production by Heterotrophs Most bacteria are heterotrophs require prepared organic food to generate energy and are unable to convert inorganic compounds to organic compounds. 1- Aerobic Respiration of CHO 2- Anaerobic Respiration of CHO (partially broken down)
Aerobic Respiration of Carbohydrates: A process in which carbohydrates are completely oxidized into H2O and energy (ATP).
Aerobic Respiration of Carbohydrates: 1. It involves three major steps. a. Glycolysis b. Kreb’s cycle c. Electron transport chain 2. Final electron acceptor is almost always an inorganic molecule, most commonly oxygen.
Glycolysis; all living cells go thru it. (10steps) 1. Glucose is broken down in a series of reactions to form: 2 molecules of pyruvic acid --> transition reaction---> Acetyl CoA--> kreb’s cycle 4(gross) ATP’s (net gain 2 ATP) 2 NADH ---> going to Electron chain (ETC)
Transition Reaction During a Transition Reaction pyruvic acid is converted into acetyl-CoA, which than enters into kreb’s cycle.
Kreb’s Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle or Tricarbooxylic Acid Cycle • Hydrogen and CO2 are removed at various steps. • End products include: 2 ATP’s 4 CO2 2 FADH 8 NADH
Electron Transport Chain (ETC): Accepts hydrogen ions released during previous two steps. End products include: 34 ATP and water
ATP Count in Aerobic Respiration: Total Net Glycolysis 4 2 Kreb’s Cycle 2 2 ETC 34 34 total 40 38
Anaerobic Respiration of Glucose Fermentation (Partial Oxidation) (Glycolysis - no Kreb cycle or ETC) All metabolic processes that release energy from a sugar or other organic molecule, do not require oxygen (no Kreb’s cycle) or an electron transport chain, and use organic molecules as the final electron acceptor. Alcohol the end product.
Types of Fermentation: Homolactic/Acidic Fermentation: 1. Homolactic/Acidic Fermentation: (Homo-same) Glucose ----- > Lactic Acid Examples: Lactobacillus bulgaricus Streptococcus thermophilus
Types of Fermentation: Alcohol Fermentation 2. Alcoholic Fermentation: Glucose -----> Ethyl alcohol + CO2 Example: Sccharomyces cerevisiae - baking yeast
Fermentation - E. coli Some organisms such as E. Coli can produce both organic acids (lactic, acetic, succinic) and alcohol from glucose and are called heterolactic or heterofermentative bacteria.
Photosynthesis in Bacteria (fyi. most bacteria are heterotrophs) Some bacteria such as cyanobacteria bacteria (aerobic),green sulfur bacteria, and purple sulfur bacteria (anaerobic) are autotrophs.These bacteria utilize light energy to convert CO2 and H2O(inorganic Compounds)into glucose (organic compound).
Photosynthesis involves the following two major steps: A. The light reactions B. The dark reactions
The Light Reactions: light and H20 No Co2 1. Cyclic Photophosphorylation 1. Cyclic Photophosphorylation (anaerobic organism) -green sulfur and purple sulfur bacteria End Product: ATP only Light energy attaches to phosphate to make ATP
The Light Reactions: Noncyclic Photophosphorylation 2. Noncyclic Photophosphorylation (aerobic organisms) Cyanobacteria End Products: Oxygen, ATP, and NADPH No glucose is made in this light phase reaction
The Dark Reactions/Calvin-Benson Cycle: takes place in three stages : 1. The Carboxylation Phase 2. The Reduction Phase 3. The Regeneration phase
The Dark Reaction - 1. The Carboxylation Phase Carbon (from carbon dioxide) is fixed/attached to RuBP (Ribulose 1,5 Biphosphate) to produce PGA (3-Phosphoglyceric Acid).
The Dark Reaction - 2. The Reduction Phase Needs the End products from Light Reaction ( Oxygen , ATP, and NADPH ) Utilizes ATP and NADPH (from light reactions) to produce PGAL (Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate).
The Dark Reaction - 3. The Regeneration Phase PGAL is converted into glucose and RuBP. Glucose comes from PGAL.
Created by: rkasiejka