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Ehsani APES Chap 2

Environmental Systems

Environmental System A set of interacting components connected in such a way that a change in one part affects other parts of the system.
Matter anything that occupies space and has mass
Mass measures the amount of matter in an object
Atom smallest particle that has the chemical and physical properties of an element
Element a substance made of one type of atom
Molecules particles that contain more than one atom bonded to each other; the smallest particle of a compound
Compound substance with molecules that have atoms bonded to each other
Atomic Number the number of protons in an element
Protons positive, subatomic particle found in nucleus
Electrons negative, subatomic particle found in orbitals around the nucleus
Neutrons neutral, subatomic particles found in nucleus
Orbitals probable location of an electron; different orbitals have different amounts of energy, shapes, and volume
Mass Number number of protons plus neutrons
Isotopes atoms of the same element with a different mass number because the number of neutrons is different
Radioactive Decay a spontaneous release of radiation from the nucleus
Parent Nuclide the unstable atom before radioactive decay
Daughter Nuclide the atom after radioactive decay
Half-life the time it takes for half of the parent nuclides to decay into daughter nuclides
Carbon-dating a method used to date artifacts by comparing the ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-14
Chemical bond the attraction between two atoms due to the sharing or transfer of electrons
Covalent bond a chemical bond created when two atoms share a pair of electrons
Ionic bond a chemical bond created when one atom transfers and electron to another atom; this creates two ions with opposite charges that are attracted to each other
Hydrogen bond the hydrogen atom in a polar covalent bond is attracted to a lone pair of electrons on an atom in a different molecule
Polar Molecule a molecule with one side that is more positive and the other side is more negative; these are partial charges
Cohesion water molecules are attracted to each other because of hydrogen bonds
Adhesion water molecules are attracted to solids because of hydrogen bonds
Surface Tension a ‘skin’ on the surface of water because of cohesion
Capillary Action the movement of water through thin tubes due to the adhesive force being greater than the cohesive force
Solvent a substance that can dissolve another substance; water is a good solvent
Acids a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
Bases a substance that increases the hydroxide ion concentration in a solution
Nitric Acid formula HNO3
Sulfuric Acid formula H2SO4
pH measures the strength of an acid or base
Chemical Reaction atoms in one molecule separate and recombine with atoms in a different molecule to form a new substance
Law of Conservation of Matter matter cannot be created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction
Inorganic Compounds compounds that don’t have carbon or don’t have carbon bonded to hydrogen
Organic Compounds found in life and have carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds
Macromolecules large organic compounds found in life: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids
Carbohydrate compounds that have carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They store a lot of energy.
Glucose formula C6H12O6
Monosaccharide simple sugar like glucose
Polysaccharide chains of simple sugars such as starches
Cellulose a polysaccharide found in plants; used for making ethanol
Protein long chains of amino acids
Enzymes proteins that help control the rates of chemical reactions
Nucleic Acids organic compounds found in all living cells; building blocks for DNA and RNA
DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid; genetic material that has the codes for making proteins needed by the organism and which passes traits onto the next generation
RNA RiboNucleic Acid; genetic material that translates the code in DNA into the manufacturing of proteins
Lipids include fats, waxes, and steroids; part of cell membranes
Cells the smallest structural and functional component of an organism
Organelles structures inside a cell with specific functions like storage, protein-synthesis
Unicellular single-celled organisms
Multicellular organisms made of many cells
Energy the ability to do work or transfer heat
Electromagnetic Radiation a form of energy in the form of wave-particles; includes visible light, UV
Photon a packet of electromagnetic radiation; a packet of energy
Joule (J) the amount of energy used when a 1-watt light bulb is turned on for 1 second; unit is watt/sec
calorie (with a lower-case c) amount of energy it takes to heat 1 gram of water 1 oC
Joule-calorie Conversion 1 calorie equals 4.184 J
Calorie (with a capital c) 1000 calories or 1 kcal
Btu British Thermal Units; amount of energy it takes to heat 1 pound of water 1 oF
Btu-Joule Conversion 1Btu equals 1,055 Joules
watts W; a unit of power
kW kilowatts; 1000 watts; a unit of power
kWh kilowatt-hour; amount of energy expended by using 1 kilowatt for 1 hour
kWh-Joule Conversion 1kWh equals 3,600,000 Joules
Power the rate at which work is done; energy/time
Potential Energy stored energy that is available to do work
Kinetic Energy the energy of motion
Chemical Energy potential energy stored in chemical bonds
Temperature measures the average kinetic energy in a substance
First Law of Thermodynamics energy is neither created nor destroyed
Second Law of Thermodynamics When energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same but some of it is lost to unusable heat energy. The amount of entropy increases.
Energy Efficiency the ratio of the amount of work that is done to the total amount of energy that is introduced into the system in the first place
Energy Quality the ease with which an energy source can be used for work
Entropy the amount of randomness in a system; entropy is always increasing in the universe
Open System the exchanges of matter or energy happen across system boundaries
Closed System matter and energy exchanges do not happen across system boundaries
Inputs additions to a given system
Outputs losses from a given system
Systems Analysis an analysis of the inputs, outputs and changes to a system
Steady State inputs equal outputs in a system; the system does not change over time
Feedback in a cyclical process, the results of the process affect the rate of the process
Negative feedback loop the results of the process cause the rate of the process to decrease; it does not imply being ‘bad’
Positive feedback loop the results of the process cause the rate of the process to increase; it does not imply being ‘good’
Adaptive Management Plan a flexible plan that changes to accommodate future changes
Created by: ehsanip