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Worsham Path Q2

pathology the study of disease-specifically the study of the structure and function of the body as it is affected by disease
where does the term pathology come from Greek word for disease or suffering (pathos) and the word for science or "study of" (logos)
when does the field of pathology come into play when structure and function are no longer "normal"
who is the "father of medicine" the Greek physician Hippoctrates (460-359BC)
gross pathology studies changes in the structure and function of the body which can be observed with the unaided eye
microscopic, cellular or histo-pathology studies changes which occur in cells of the body at the microscopic level
general pathology deal with general or broad disease processes, such as necrosis or inflammatin, which may affect the entire body or wide-spread tissues and organs
special pathology studies disease processes affecting individual body areas or systems, such as pathology of the respiratory system or diseases of the skin
pathological anatomy study of tissues which have been removed from the body for patholoical study
tissuses removed during surgery or a biopsy is also known as surgical pathology
autopsy pathology tissues removed during autopsy
clinical pathology deals with the laboratory study of, and the performance of standardized tests on, body fluids, and secretions, such as blood and urine tests, or cultures and smears of various types
physiological pathology refers to studying the functional changes in the body resulting from disease
medical-legal pathology (forensic pathology) that field of pathology which deals with both the medical and legal issues surrounding death
autopsy (postmortem examinaion; necropsy) from the Greek words for "self" and "sight", used to refer to the examination of the body after death in order to determine the cause of death and/or existence of various disease conditions
translation of necropsy "a state of death"
disease any change in the structure or function of the body as a result of injury to the tissues
acute rapid onset-short duration
chronic gradual onset-long duration
fulminating disease acute disease that ends in death
recurrent disease symptoms and signs of a disease reappear after a period of remission
infectious disease disease caused by a living pathogenic microorganism; transmitted from person to person
contagious (communicable) diseases which are easily transmitted from person to person
infestation refers to the presence of macroscopic organisms in or on the body (animal parasites, fleas, ticks)
idiopathic cause of disease is not known
occupational disease results from the nature of one's working conditions (coal minners disease-black lung)
endemic dieases which are always present to some degree in a given area or community
sporadic diseases which are found to occur only occasionally in a community
epidemic diseases which affect a much larger than normal number of people in a community at one time
pandemic diseases which affect the majority of the population in a very large area, possibly even worldwide
prevalence refers to the number of cases of a disease within a certain population at a given time
acquired disease development of a disease after birth
congenital disease present at or before birth
hereditary disease disease transmitted from parent to offspring
all genetic diseases are hereditary
not all hereditary diseases are genetic
febrile disease disease characterized by the presence of a fever
intoxication the state of being poisoned
deficiency disease disease caused by the lack of some essential element
iatrogenic one which results from a physicians treatment of a patient
malformations or anomalies any defect in formation, structure or position of the body part. (something other then normal-no matter how small or large)
aplasia absence of a body part
hypoplasia under development of a body part
spina bifada defect in the walls of the lower part of the spinal column
polydactylism excess number of fingers or toes
hernia protrusion of an organ through the wall of the body cavity in which it is contained
fistula abnormal tract or channel through the tissues, connecting one body cavity with another, or connecting a cavity with the surface of the body
cyst sac-like structure, containing fluid or a semi-solid substance. (abnormal debelopment of tissues, obstruction of ducts or infections)
Down's Syndrome (mongolism) genetic defect resulting in various degrees of mental retardation, a dwarfed physique, and certain characteristic abnormalities of the head and extremities
lesion any change produced by a disease (cold sore, peptic ulcer, broken bone, abscess, chancre)
organic diseases disease have readily identifiable characteristic lesions (swollen & inflamed mucous membranes, ulcerations of syphilis)
functional disease disease with no apparent underlying organic disorder
symptom subjective manifestation of a disease. Those things which cannot be measured such as pain or malaise ("just don't feel good")
sign objective manifestation of disease. Those things which can be measured such as blood pressure, body temperature, swelling, heart rate
syndrome group of signs and symptoms that occur together. The sum of the signs and syptoms of any pathological condition
diagnosis the determination of what disease exists. Analysis of patient history, signs, symptoms, and results of tests ordered by the physician
differential diagnosis the process by which a physicain will rule out certain diseases with similar signs and symptoms so that an accurate determination can be made
prognosis prediction of the outcome of a disease
remission abatement; temporary or permanent disappearance of signs and symptoms
exacerbation a sudden increase in the severity of signs and symptoms
complication any unfavorable condition that may arise during a disease (hemorrhage resulting from duodenal peptic ulcer)
etiology cause of the disease (specifically, the study of the cause of disease
pathogenesis development of a disease, what it causes, what changes it produces, and how it affects the structure (morphology) and function (physiology) of the part or organ involved and the body as a whole
what are 6 predisposing factors for diseases age, race, gender, genetics, occupation, environment
whar are 7 immediate/existing cause of disease trauma, physical agents, chmical agents, living agents, deficiencies, allergens, heredity
sequelae remote aftereffects of disease. May appear 20 to 30 years after the acute stage
intercurrent disease disease that arises during the course of another disease (patient with cancer myocardial infarction)
non-suppurative disease non-spus forming
communicable disease disease that can be transmitted from one person to another
allergy a state of hypersensitivity of the immune system; an overreaction to a harmless substance called allergen
functional disease disease with no apparent underlying organic disorder (phobias)
inflammation body's response to tissue injury
it is not a diaease, but a process the body goes through in response to an injury inflammation
inflammation can be thought of as a defense mechanism
the 3 purposes of inflammation are 1-limit extension of this injurious, 2-destroy & remove the injurious agent, 3-mechanism for allowing the body to repair itself & return the injured tissues to normal use
four common causes of inflammation living agents, chemical irritants, physical irritants, immunological reactions
inflammatory response is initiated when injured and dying cells release chemical substances into the surrounding tissues which in turn stimulate other events to occur
no matter the cause of inflammation the common underlying situation is damage to bodily tissues
in an attempt to isolate infection capillaries become ______ permeable, leaking additional fluid, which carry _______ and ______ _______ more, antibodies, plasma proteins
plasma proteins are involved in blood clot formation (fibrin formation)
exudates excess fluids which collect around an inflammation site may be thought of as a type of edema
exudates may be categorized based on the substances they contain, which would be purulent or suppurative (pus), hemorrhagic (blood), serous (clear liquid portion of the blood)
diapedesis white blood cells are migrating out of the capillary walls and into the surrounding tissues
neutrophils are the most prevalent type of phagocytic white blood cells and they help to ingest invading bacteria and other cellular debris
the process of pus formation is called suppuration
bacteria which cause suppuration are called pyogenic
what are 5 signs of cardinal inflammation heat (calor), redness (rubor), pain (dolor), swelling (tumor), altered function
which sign of inflammation is associated with extra blood flow heat and redness
swelling is additional blood flow and presence of exudates
pain associated with inflammation is pressure on sensory nerve endings in the vicinity of the inflammation
altered function can be the result of any combinaiton of calor, rubor, dolor or tumor
what are the 6 common lesions associated with inflammation abscess, ulcer, vesicle, pustule, furuncle, carbuncle
abscess an area of pus surrounded by wall of inflammatory tissue
ulcer a localized area of necrosis on the skin or mucous membranes
vesicle an elevation of the skin containing fluid
pustule an elevation of the skin containing pus
furuncle boil; an abscess located in the deeper layers of the skin
carbuncle 2 or more communicating furuncles; often accompanied by fever, leukocytosis, weakness, fatigue
when the inflammatory process has mangaged to overcome the injurious agent the next step is tissue repair
repair refers to the replacement of damaged tissue with connective tissue
scar or cicatrix involves the formation of fibrous connective tissue
regeneration refers to the replacement of damaged tissue with identical tissue
tissues of the body have equal or varying regenerative capacities varying
resolution indicate the termination of an inflammatory reaction, with the body part returned to normal use
what are the 2 main implications of inflammation 1-skin burns, infectious lesions 2-internal inflammorty condition
how to overcome skin burns and infectious lesions cosmetic civering of minor discolorations, excision of cebrotic tissue, surface compresses, hypodermic injection to supplement arterial injection
how to overcome internal inflammatory condition higher fluid content in localized areas of inflammation
Created by: 1157564676