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Worsham Anatomy Q2

the study of joints athrology
synarthroses joints, example immovable, sutures
amphiarthroses joints, example slightly movable, vertabre
diarthroses, example freely movable, shoulder, hip & knee
structural classification is based on the material that binds the bones together & on presence or absence of the joint cavity
what are the types of joints fibrous (sutures), carilaginous (disc of fibrocartalige), synovial (freely movable)
what type of joint has a cavity synovial
ends of opposing bones are covered with hyaline cartilage to absorb compression articular cartilage
this is unique to synovial joints joint cavity (synovial cavity), holds a small amount of fluid
joint capsule (articular capsule) has ______ 2 layers
fibrous capsule is outer layer of fibrous capsule, dense irregular connective tissue that strengthens the joint
inner layer is synovial membrane, loose connective tissue that lines joint capsule & covers internal joint surfaces
what is the function of the inner layer make synovial fluid
what is synovial fluid viscous fluid similar to raw egg white, filtrate of blood, contains glycoprotein molecules
purpose of synovial joints reinforcing ligaments
synovial joints are richly or poorly supplied with nerves & vessels? richly
most of the blood is supplied to the synovial membrane
some synovial joints contain an articular disc, such as the knee joint, bones with a somewhat different shape
Bursae & tendon sheaths are synovial joints, T/F false
described as a closed bag of lubricant to reduce friction bursae & tendon sheaths
bursa flattened fibrous sac lined by a synovial membrane
tendon sheath elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon
the only places articular surfaces play a major role in joint stability elbow, knee, hip
the more ______ in a joint, the stronger it is, generally dense regular connective tissue, attches bone to bone ligaments
what is the most important factor in joint stability, keeps tension on muscle tendons muscle tone
gliding flat surfaces of 2 bones slip across each other (carpals, tarsals, articular processes of vertebrae)
flexion decrease the angle between 2 bones (flexing a bicept)
extension increase the angle between bones (extending/straightening the arm)
abduction moving a limb away from the body (spreading the fingers)
adduction moving a limb toward the midline (bring the arm back to your side)
circumduction moving a limb or finger so that it describes a cone in space (involves flexion, extension, abduction & adduction)
medial rotation rotating the forearm posteriorly (palm faces posteriorly)
lateral rotation rotating the forearm anteriorly (palm faces anteriorly)
supination forearm rotates laterally (palm faces anteriorly)
pronation forearm rotates medially (palm faces posteriorly)
dorsiflexion lifting the foot so its superior surface approaches the shin
plantar flexion depressing the foot (pointing the toes)
inversion turning the sole medially (inward)
eversion turning the sole laterally (outward)
protraction nonangular movement of jetting out the jaw
retraction nonangular movement of pulling back the jaw
elevation lifting the body superiorly (closing the mouth)
depression moving the elevated part inferiorly (opening the mouth)
opposition movement of the thumb to touch the tips of other fingers on the same hand (opposable thumbs)
shoulder & hip joints are ball-n-socket joints
elbow & knee joints are hinge joints
study of muscle myology
types of muscle tissue skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle
muscle that is attached to the skeleton skeletal muscle
function of smooth muscle squeeze fluids & other substances through hollow organs
type of muscle that propels blood through the circulatory system cardiac muscle
functions of muscle tissues movement, maintenance of posture, joint stabilizaiton, heat generation
functional features of muscle tissue contractability, excitabililty, extensibility, elasticity
long cells shorten & generate pulling force contractability
electrical nerve impulse stimulates the muscle cell to contract excitability
can be stretched back to its original length by contraction of an opposing muscle extensibility
can recoil after being stretched elasticity
skeletal muscle tissue (fibers) are voluntary or involuntary, striated or non-striated voluntary, striated
cardiac muscle tissue is voluntary or involentary, striated or non-striated involuntary, striated
smooth muscle tissue ia voluntary or involentary, striated or non-striated involuntary, non-striated
what are the 3 types of connective tissue sheaths for skeletal muscle tissue epimysium, perimysium, endomysium
which sheath covers an individual nerve endomysium
perimysium makes a bundle
which sheath covers a whole bunch of nerves epimysium
the less moveable part of muscle attchment origin
the more moveable part of the muscle attchment insertion
insertion is ____ ______ the orgin pulled toward
direct attachments have long or short strands short
indirect attachments have long or short strands long
tendons are ______ and connect _________ rope-like, muscle to bone
aponeurosis are _______ flat sheets
ligaments connect bone to bone
"muscle of surprise" that raises the eyebrows, forms transverse furrows on the forehead frontalis
origin and insertion of the frontalis galea aponeurotica, sking of eyebrows & root of the nose
origin and insertion of occipitalis and what does it do occipital bone, galea aponeurtica, draws scalp back
sphincter muscle that encirbles and closes the eye also forms optic facial sulci or "crows feet" orbicularis oculi
sphincter muscle that encircles the mouth and closes the lips orbicularis oris
"laughing muscle" that raises lateral corners of the mouth upward zygomaticus major
"smiling muscle" that raises lateral corner of the mouth upward, also lateral head of the quadratus labii superioris zygomaticus minor
"snarling muscle" that raises the angle of the mouth levator anguli oris
"triangularis" that draws the angle of the mouth down depressor anguli oris
"false smiling muscle" that draws the angle of the mouth backward risorius
muscle that raises the upper eyelid levator palpebrae superioris
"trumpeter's" or "bugler's muscle" that compresses the cheek buccinator
"frowning muscle" that draws eyebrows down & in and forms vertical interciliary sulci corrugator
draws skin of the forehead down & forms transverse interciliary sulci procerus
raises the upper lip & is the intermediate head of the quadratus labii superioris levator labii superioris
"common elevator" that diates nostril & raises the upper lip and is the medial head of the quadratus labii superioris levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
"quadratus" that draws the lower lip down depressor labii inferioris
protrudes the lower lip, wrinkles the chin mentalis
"muslce of mastication" strongest chewing muscle, that closes the jaw temporalis
origin and insertion of the temporalis temporal bone (temporal fossa), mandible (coronoid process)
"muscle of mastication" chewing muscle that closes the jaw masseter
"SCM" rotates & flexes the head sternocleidomastoid
"shock & horror muscle" that orginiates at the clavicle & pectoralis and inserts at the mandible platysma
elevates the hyoid bone and has an anterior & posterior belly digasticus
depresses the hyoid and has an inferior & superoir belly omohyoid
lateral & medial chewing muscles that aid in side-to-side (grinding) movements pterygoid muscles
muscles that have opposing actions antagonistic
synergistic muscles work together or against one another together to perform the same action
pectoralis major muscle of the chest; anterior thorax, fan-shaped conberges & inserts on the humerus; arm adduction
external intercostals between the ribs; elevates the ribs in breathing (increases thoracic capacity)
internal intercostals between the ribs; depresses the ribs in breathing (decreases thoracic capacity)
diaphragm phrenic muscle; originates at the sternum, ribs & bertebrae, insterts at the central tendon; increases thoracic capacity
3 opening in the diaphram vena cava, aorta, esophagus
trapezius dorsi lower back muscle; extends, adducts & rotates the humerus
ructus abdominus anteromedial abdominal/horizontal tendious intersections; flexes the truck; linea alba
external obliques MOST SUPERFICIAL of anterolateral abdominal muscles; inserts at linea alba; action: compresses the abdomen
internal obliques INTERMEDIATE anterloateral abdominal muscles; inserts at linea alba; action: compresses the abdomen
transversus abdomius DEEPEST anterolateral abdominal muscles; inserts at linea alba; action: compresses the abdomen
psoas major POSTERIOR abdominal wall muscle; action: flexes the thigh
Created by: 1157564676