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Geology Vocab 2

Types of rock, soil

What is igneous rock? When is it intrusive/extrusive? formed by cooling of magma; extrusive = cooled rapidly at Earth’s surface and have small minerals, intrusive = cooled slowly underground and have large minerals
form when rocks weather, erode, and are deposited/cemented into sedimentary rock, often contain fossils sedimentary rock
form when igneous or sedimentary rock is subjected to high heat and pressure metamorphic rock
hard inorganic substances composing rock minerals
Metallic minerals include iron, aluminum, gold
breaking of rock into smaller parts weathering
group of processes which produce rocks, gets energy from tectonic cycle rock cycle
rock weathers into small fragments combined with organic material from dead plants/animals forms soil soil formation
top soil surface layer, typically rich in organic matter
layer below surface layer, little organic matter subsoil
determined by amounts of sand, silt, and clay, if amounts of these three equal, called a loam soil texture
its particles are 0.2-2.0 mm diameter, water moves through rapidly, hence nutrient poor (washed out) sand
smaller than sand, moderate water and nutrient holding capacity silt
smallest soil particles, water moves slowly through, lots of nutrients clay
soil containing 40% sand, 40% silt, 20% clay, great for agriculture loam
porosity amount of pore space (empty areas) between soil grains
water logging soil completely saturated with water, some plant roots can’t tolerate and plants die (fungus etc.)
humus organic (plant/animal remains), dark material remaining after decomposition by microorganisms
humus containing pellets in soil from earthworms castings
illuviation deposit of leached material in lower soil layers
Created by: FHSAPES