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Grade 9 Science Exam

Grade 9 Science Review

What is matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.
What is chemistry? Chemistry is the study of matter.
What is a physical change? Physical change is when the appearance of a substance changes, but chemical structure stays the same. Reversible
What is a chemical change? New substance is formed with new chemical structure. Irreversible
5 Indications of a chemical change has occurred 1. New color 2. New gas is formed(possibly new odor) 3. Light is produced 4. Heat is lost or gained 5. Precipitate forms (2 liquids form a solid)
What is a physical property? a characteristic of a substance that may help you identify it.
What is a chemical property? The behavior of a substance as it becomes a new substances.
what is the particle theory? 1. all matter is made of particles 2. pure substance have their own particles 3. particles are always moving 4. there are attractive forces between particles.
What is a pure substance? Contains only 1 kind of particle.
What is a element? a pure substance that can not be broken down into simpler substances.
What is a compound? a pure substance that contains 2 or more different elements in a fixed proportion.
What are molecules ? when 2 or more atoms join together.
What are mixtures? contains 2 or more pure substances or 2 different types of particles.
What is a homogeneous mixture? A substance that is composed of similar elements(uniform nature)
What is a heterogeneous mixture? 2 or more substances are visible.
What are electrons? Negative charged subatomic particle. located around nucleus. 0 units
What are Protons? positive charged subatomic particle. Located in the nucleus. 1 unit
What are neutrons? Neutral subatomic particles. Located around the nucleus. 1 unit
How many electrons are allowed as a maximum on each valence shell? 2 8 8 2
What is the octet rule? all atoms want to have a full valence shell.(8)
2 types of bonds? Covalent & Ionic
What are ionic bonds? nonmetal + metal
What are covalent bonds? nonmetal+ nonmetal
What is electricity? is based on electron flow
What is electrostatics? the study of electricity
What is the electrostatic series? a list of substances describing their relative attraction for electrons
What are ions? Charged atom which have gained or lost electrons.
What are the 2 ways of charging an object? Charge by contact charge by induction
What is charging by induction? near the object
What is a conductor? Materials that allows electrons to flow easily
What is an insulator? materials that hold electrons tightly and do not transfer electricity well.
What is grounding? ground wire is connected to the earth to dilute the earth
What are 3 uses of static electricity? 1. Pollution & dust control 2. coating surfaces 3. Copying printed material
What are the four parts of a electric circuit? 1. Switch 2. source 3. conducting wire 4. Electrical load
What is the law of repulsion? it is the law which like objects are repelled and opposites are attracted.
What is electric current? flow or movement of electric charge from one place to another.
What is a source? source of electrical energy
what is an electrical conductor? wire that provide a controlled path for the flow of electrical current
What is an electrical load? device that converts electrical energy into useful energy
What is CURRENT? rate at which a number of electrons move past a given point through a circuit in 1 second
What is current measured in? amperes
What is an ammeter? measures electrical current
What is the formula for current? I = Q/T
I = current (amperes/A)
Q = charge moving past a point(coulomb/c)
T = Time (seconds/s)
What is an open switch? no current flows
What is a closed switch? current flows
What is voltage? Electric Potential" potential given to each e- as it leaves a source
What is a voltmeter? it measures difference in potential energy on one side of the load and the other.
What is potential difference? Is how much energy a load (can) uses up
What is voltage measured in? Volts
V = Voltage (v = volts)
E = Energy (j = joules)
Q = charge moving past a point (c = coulomb)
What is the formula for voltage? V = E/Q
What is resistance? a property that inhibits electrical motion, converts electrical energy to other energy forms. (more resistance it is harder to push coulombs through wire)
What is resistance measured in? ohms
What is the formula for resistance? R = V/I
What are the 4 factors that affect resistance(of a wire) 1. Temperature- higher temp = greater resistance 2. Length - resistance increases with length 3. Cross sectional area - resistance decreases with a larger areas 4. Material - depends on the structure of the atoms of the metal
What is power? Describes the amount of electrical energy that is converted into heat, light, sound or motion in 1 second.
What is power measured in? Watts (W)
What is the formula for power? P = E/T
What is the 1st law of thermodynamics? energy is not created or destroyed, only changed to different forms of energy
What is input energy? amount of energy used to operate a system.
What is output energy? useful energy obtained from the systems
What is waste energy? energy that is not helpful.
What is the formula for efficiency? Energy output/Energy input X 100%
What is a fuse? a metal conductor that has a much lower melting point than conducting wires. - when melted, current stops flowing. - new fuse will beeded when fuse is blown.
What is a circuit breaker? - bimetallic strip bends with hot wires, releasing a hook to stop current flow - reset hook to start circuit again
What is a hot wire? carry electrical energy (red/black) Large devices get 2 hot wire small devices get 1 hot wire
What is a ground wire? - one wire entering the is neutral - connected to all appliances.
What does D.C. stand for? Direct current.
What does A.C. stand for? Alternating current/.
What is direct current? Electrons travel continuously in 1 direction.
What is alternating current? electrons rapidly change direction back and forth.
What is a primary cell? - Disposable energy - when all material is discharged, all is used up
What are 2 examples of a primary cell? Wet cells/voltaic cells Dry cells- battery is a collection of dry batteries
What is a secondary cell? a battery that can regain its charge
What is Ecology? The study of how organisms interact with each others.
What is an ecosystem? term used to describe the relationships among species living in a environment and the relationship among those organisms and non-living components of the environment.
What is an ecotone? a transition area between 2 ecosystems/ecozones that contain species and characteristics of both ecosystems; therefore having greater biodiversity.
What does abiotic mean? non-living factors or influences on organisms such as amount of sunlight, temperature and strength or direction of wind.
what does biotic mean? Factors caused by the presence and roles of other living things
What is population? all of the members of the same species, living in the same ecosystem or habitats
What is a habitat? the conditions required for the survival of a particular species.
What is a community? the collection of all populations of all the species in a ecosystem or habitat is called the community of organisms
What is a biome? a collection of ecosystems that are similar or related to each other by a dominate form.
What is a food chain they show the predator-prey relationship
What is a food web are complex and show more inter-relationship. (they provide a more accurate picture of the ecosystem)
What is the 2nd law of thermodynamics? anytime energy is converted, some of the energy is converted into an unusable form usually thermal energy that can not be converted
What is photosynthesis? Sunlight is converted into sugar. (Stored chemical energy)
What is cellular respiration? Sugar is converted to useful chemical energy.
What are food pyramids? they show relationships between trophic levels. they are another wasy of showing food chains.
What are the 3 types of food pyramids? Numbers, Biomass & energy. (least to greatest)
What is a species? organisms that are similar and can mate to produce fertile offspring.
What are the 4 ways a population can change sizes? Births, Deaths, Immigration, Emigration.
What is bioaccumulation? pesticides that accumulate in the fatty tissue.
What has a closed populations? Populations that do not have immigration & emigration.
What are the 4 layers of soil? (top to bottom) Litter, topsoil, subsoil, bedrock
What is population growth? Births + immigration - emigration - deaths
What is biotic potential? the max # of offspring a species can produce.(depends on 4 factors)
What are the 4 factors that affect biotic potential? 1. Birth potential 2. Capacity for survival 3. Procreation 4. Length of reproductive life
What is carrying capacity? the max # of individuals that an ecosystem can support
What is a critical number? the # of organisms below which extinction will result for that species.
What are 3 words used to describe soil? Acidic, neutral, basic.
What the 3 things that determine the pH of soil? 1. The nature of the rock from which the soil was formed. 2. the type of plants that grow in it, die & decompose. 3. The rain & snow that falls on the soil.
What are the 3 factors that determine the type of biome and will influence the type of plants? 1. Temperature 2. Amount and type of precipitation 3. Latitude
What is a celestial body? an object in space that are visible from earth. (sun, moon stars, planets)
What is a asterism? a distinctive star pattern. (the big dipper)
What is a constellation? a group of stars that form a pattern.
What is a planet? a celestial body that orbits a star and does not produce its own light.
What is a supernova? a huge explosion constituting the death of a star.
What is a nebula? a vast cloud of gas & dust, which may be the birth place of a star.
What is a black hole? in space, an object having such strong gravity that nothing, not even light can escape it.
What is a neutron star? a small super dense star thought to be the crushed remnant of a large star that has exploded as a supernova.
What is a white dwarf? a small super hot star that is not very bright.
What is a light year? the distance that a beam of light travels in a vacuum in 1 year. (9.46 trillion km)
What is the geocentric model? The earth centered model; proposed by Aristotle.
What is the heliocentric model? The sun centered model; proposed by copernicus.
What is day & night caused by? the rotation on the earth's axis
What does the tilt cause? it causes differences in temperature, hence seasons.
what degrees is the tilt at? 23.5 degrees.
What are the 2 types of rays? Direct & slanting rays.
What is an asteroid? Irregular shaped bodies made of carbonaceous or silicate rock. (also called minor planets)
What is a comet? a celestial body made of ice & dust. (dirty snowballs)
What is a meteor? a shooting star made of dust & rock.
What is a metorite? A meteor that hits earth.
What is a series circuit? The electrons only have 1 path to follow and the all appliances share electrical pressure.
What is a parallel circuit? The electrons have more than 1 path to follow and the appliance do not share electrical pressure.
What is a spectroscope? a device that splits light into a pattern of colours.
What is luminosity? the amount of energy a star radiates per second.
What are stars formed from? giant clouds of gas and dust known as nebulae.
What does starlight provide? information about the star's brightness, color temperature, composition, mass & size.
What is color used to find? Temperature (smaller wave length = hotter star)& the composition of a star.
RED = cool
YELLOW = hot
BLUE = very hot
What are the 3 types of galaxies? Spiral, elliptical & irregular.
What is a galaxy? stars, gas & dust held together by gravity. (they occur in clusters like stars)
What are the 2 types of clusters that stars are found in? Open clusters & globular clusters.
What is our galaxy? The milky way.
What is a spiral galaxy? pinwheel shaped with arms of gas, dust & bright blue stars. (Which indicate the formation of new stars)
What is type is our galaxy? Spiral galaxy.
What is an elliptical galaxy? a football shaped of mostly old stars with little gas & dust.
What is a irregular galaxy? young & old stars in gas and dust. Usually small and less common.
What are the 3 ways of transferring electrical charge? By friction, by contact, and by induction.
What are the 3 things involved in the nitrogen cycle? Decomposer, bacteria and animals.
What is nitrification? The process in which atmosphere nitrogen converting to nitrates.
What is dentification? Process performed by some soil bacteria in which nitrates are converted to nitrates and then to nitrogen gas.
What are the 2 processes involved in the carbon cycle? Photosynthesis and cell respiration.
What are tides caused by? The gravitational pull of the moon.
During a lunar eclipse what is in the centre? The earth.
During a solar eclipse what is in the centre? The moon.
When would the sun be above the horizon for the most hours? June 22 the Equinox.
In which season can we see the big dipper? every season.
What is the hubble? a telescope.
How do you figure out the number of neutrons? Atomic mass - atomic number = number of neutrons
What is an isotope? An atom with different number of neutron and different atomic mass, but is the same element.
What are the 4 main abiotic factors of ecosystems? Light, temperature, wind and moisture.
What are the 3 light factors in an ecosystems? Intensity, duration and quality.
What is an organic substance? A substance always containing atoms of carbon and hydrogen.
What is the definition of extirpated? any species that no longer exists in a certain part a country.
Created by: soccer_girl13