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Phil3100 Exam 2


First Step of Learning (Bottom step) The sensations
Second Step of Learning Experience (psychological and cannot be shared)
Third Step of Learning Art or Technique (CAN be shared)
Fourth Step of Learning Separated into a) Episteme and b) Nous
First Step of Learning: The sensations 1) They are triggered by the five senses 2) Cannot judge - it's an immediate response (no time to process)
Episteme Knowing what principals DO
Nous Knowing what principals ARE
Intuition is related to... Nous
Who created the concept of the Four Steps of Learning? Aristotle
Importance of the Steps of Learning If we do not learn, and do not overcome sensations, we remain on the bottom step (we get STUCK in the sameness of life)
Aristotle's two most important books: 1) Primordial knowledge 2) Moral
Primordial knowledge (of Aristotle): Steps of Learning "Humans tend to know:" Humans constantly ask questions (especially when younger), but as we grow older we tend to think we know things, so we tend to stop asking as many questions
Moral (of Aristotle) "Tend to find goods" -> Happiness
The ultimate happiness (according to Aristotle) 1) Comfort: Rocks, stones, and plants experiences this because they have the opportunity to rest 2) Pleasure: Animals experience pleasure 3) REASON: Ultimate experience for humans -> Reasonable -> "Just Middle Path" (Virtue!)
Virtue (according to Aristotle) Is what brings happiness ("happy medium"); what makes us become better humans
Lesser evil Finite good (Killing Osama v. capturing Osama?)
Private property Meant to be shared amongst the people
Epictetus' philosophy Two kinds of things on life: 1) Don't depend on us (health, wealth, honors) and 2) Depend on us
Epictetus is known as... One of the main stoic philosophers and perhaps was the "freest" person in Rome (ironic, because he spent most of his life as a slave)
What DOES depend on us? (Epictetus) Choices (only in control of the choice, not the outcome)
Life of Seneca Was the main advisor for the emperor Nero in Roman Empire; famous for committing suicide as a political protest. Wrote many books; main one known as "Brevity of life"
Brevity of Life By Seneca. "It's not the same to last long than to live long..." (Quality v. quantity). Also states: Wisdom is not dependent on age, but on the amount of information that becomes wisdom over a lifetime.
Stoicism Regardless of how much adversity you face, you persist. Goal = Reaching virtue (main achievement in life); the most important value is WILL (to fight adversity)
Marcus Aurelius "Emperor Philosopher." Perfect example of living a "stoic" life - went to battle with his soldiers; with adversity and challenge, found the means of being virtuous.
Mediations of Marcus Aurelius "Don't live for tomorrow what you can do today."
Who was Socrates? A soldier, with a midwife for a mother (as his mother gave birth to children, he gave birth to ideas). Lectured in agora (marketplace) and was considered "the wisest person." Sent to his death (poison) for "corrupting the youth."
"I only know that I don't know." Of Socrates. Was "the wisest person" because he was the only one aware of his ignorance.
Goal of Socrates To be ethical, virtuous.
Who was Plato? Nickname = Broad back. Came from a rich family, and death of Socrates meant a lot to this philosopher. Established "The Academy."
Plato wrote: 1) The Republic 2) The Symposium (typically written in dialogues)
The Republic Discusses JUSTICE (Res [matter] - public). Disagrees with concept that justice gives equal parts to everybody. The three main concepts: 1) Individual 2) Society 3) State
Plato's definition of "justice" Given in accordance to the nature of the person, what the person is deserving. This is applied to society.
Plato's concept of the "individual" "Undividable" (Spirit). True ones are nearly nonexistent.
Individual Everyone is a person; but with effort, people become individuals
Society An exchange of material needs
State Born when an invisible concept (known as justice) is needed; a higher purpose
What is included in Society? Professions: shoemakers, tailors, etc. Conflict needs a sound interference -> invisible need.
What is included in State? Government (triangle) is made by individuals and society (4 elements): 1) Intellectuals 2) Artists/warriors 3) Merchants 4) Builders
Four Elements of Society (according to Plato) 1) Intellectuals 2) Artists/warriors 3) Merchants 4) Builders
Merchants (according to Plato) Currently the most powerful institution in the world
The Symposium Discusses love (an important concept in Greek philosophy, like gravity/attraction).
Five Types of Government Of Plato. 1) Aristocracy 2) Timocracy 3) Oligarchy 4) Democracy 5) Tyranny
First Type of Government Aristocracy (not the elitists): Of the individual
Second Type of Government Timocracy: Rule of praise/honors (by emotions and pride)
Third Type of Government Oligarchy: Of power and money ($$$)
Fourth Type of Government Democracy: Of the people (one of the worst types - according to Plato). Requires money and involves a slight bit of tyranny.
Fifth Type of Government Tyranny: By force. Has a bit of democracy.
Pain (according to Plotinus) Evil, but (according to this philosopher) evil does not exist. In reality, it is the absence of good. Therefore, there is no evil, BUT in our level of awareness, we need light AND darkness. Difference between virtue v. norm
Being Of Plotinus. Everything that is going to be manifested but it is still in potential.
Intelligence Of Plotinus. Organizes the being into creation.
Creation Of Plotinus. Manifested in universe.
Two roads to climb in order to ascend: 1) Evolution (NOT biological; spiritual evolution in thoughts and feelings) 2) Theophany. Of Plotinus.
The soul has two movements: 1) Ascending 2) Descending (Two works: 1) Organization 2) Contemplation)
What is the "being"? (Plotinus) 1) The being is always going to be a part in everything 2) Every part of the universe has a part of the being 3) Climb the steps to become one with the one (or being with the being) - "What's divine in me to what's divine in the universe"
Quote from Plotinus (Reflects his philosophy) "I always tried to elevate what's divine in me to what's divine in the universe."
Ascending movement of the soul: Unity = good. (Plotinus) As it does this, the soul unites.
Descending movement of the soul: Multiplicity = evil. (Plotinus) As it does this, the soul divides (material world)
The soul (according to Plotinus) Shares a part of both worlds: Good (unity) and evil (multiplicity)
Individual (Allegory) We all live in our own cave, but outside it is a truer reality. Realize: Inner reality and where one is headed (who you are, what life really is)
Society (Allegory) Everything in the world is temporal (nothing lasts forever). This is a game (not real) and is made up of many different illusions
Breaker of the chains (Allegory) Idealist
In outside world, breaker of the chains becomes: (Allegory) Philosopher
Returns to the cave to convince others: (Allegory) Politician
The Cave (Allegory) Illusion of the material world
Outside the Cave (Allegory) Reality (of the spiritual world)
Aristocracy Government of the individuals (not the elitists)
Timocracy Government of rule of praise and honors (by emotions and pride)
Oligarchy Government of power and money ($$$)
Democracy Government of the people; requires money and a bit of tyranny
Tyranny Government by force; has a bit of democracy
Theophany A visible manifestation to humankind of God or a god
Created by: 1161427880