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Chapter 10 Milady

Basics of Chemistry

Solutions that have a pH below 7.0, and turn litmus paper from blue to red. Acids
Solutions that have a pH above 7.0, and turn litmus paper from red to blue. Alkalis
Substances used to neutralize acids or raise the pH of many hair products Alkanolamines
Colorless gas with a pungent odor. Composed of hydrogen and nitrogen. Ammonia
An ion with a negative electrical charge. Anion
Smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of that element. Atom
An ion with a positvie charge. Cation
Change in the chemical and physical properties of a substance due to a chemical reaction that creates a new substnace or substances. Chemical Change
Characteristics that can only be determined by a chemical reation and a chemical change in the substance. Chemical Properties
Science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter, and how matter changes under various conditions. Chemistry
Rapid oxidation of substance. accompanied by the production of heat and light. Combustion
Combinations of two or more atoms of different elements chemically joined together Compounds
The simplest form of matter, it cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without a loss of identity Element
A chemical combination of stoms of the same element Elemental Molecules
An unstable mixture of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of an emulsifier Emuslion
Chemical reactions that produce heat. Exothermic
Sweet colorless, oily substance used as a solvent and moisturizer in skin and body creams. Glycerin
Water loving. Hydrophilic
Not capable of being mixed. Immiscible
Study of substances that do not contain carbon. Inorganic Chemistry
An atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge. Ion
Seperation of an atom or molecule into positive and negative ions. Ionization
Oil loving. Lipophilic
Multiples of ten. Logarithm
Any substance that occupies space and has mass. Matter
Capable of being mixed with another liquid in any proportion without seperating. Miscible
A chemical combination of two or more atoms. Molecule
Oil droplets emulsified in water. Oil-in-Water (o/w) Emuslion
Study of substances that contain carbon. Organic Chemistry
A chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to prduce an oxide. Oxidation
Substance that releases oxygen. Oxidizing Agent
Measures the acidity and alkalinity of a substance. pH Scale
Change in the form or physical properties of a substaance without the formation of a new substance. Physical Change
Physical combination of matter, in any proportion. Physical Mixture
Charecteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical reaction in the substance. Physical Properties
Chemical combination of matter in definite proportions. Pure Substance
Contraction for reduction-oxidation; chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized. Redox
To substract oxygen from or add hydrogen to a substance. Reduced
Special type of oil used in hair conditioner and as water resistant lubricants for the skin. Silicones
Substance that is dissolved in a solution. Solute
Stable mixture of two or more mixable substances. Solution
Substance that dissolves the solute to form a solution. Solvent
Surface active agents; substances that act as bridge to allow oil and water to mix, or emulsify. Surfactants
Unstable mixture of undissolved particles in a liquid. Suspension
Easily evaporating. Volatile
Substances containing carbon that evaporate quickly and easy. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Water droplets emulsified in oil. Water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion
the chemical reaction of of subtracting oxygen from, or adding hydrogen to, a substance Reduction
Created by: lois100754