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Nervous System Def.

Central Nervous System contains the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System connects the CNS to the other body parts.
Neuron a specialized cell that responds to physical and chemical changes inside or outside of the body.
Nervous Tissue masses of neurons and neuroglial cells.
Myelin sheath a fatty lipoprotein surrounding the axon of a neuron.
Nerve impulse information transmitted in the form of electrochemical changes.
CNS brain and spinal cord
PNS nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to the peripheral body parts.
Sensory receptors detects changes or stimuli inside or outside of the body.
Effectors muscles and glands
Neuroglial cells fills spaces, provides structure, produces myelin, and can carry our phagocytosis.
Microglial cells scattered throughout the CNS to provide support and phagocytize bacterial cells and cellular debris.
Oligodendrocytes align along nerve fibers, produce myelin on the axons of the CNS
Astrocytes found between neurons and blood vessels, hook extensions on to the CNS to provide structure, join parts, regulate concentrations of nutrients and ions, and form scar tissue.
Ependymal cells form epithelia like membranes around the outside of or the inside lining of the brain and spinal cord.
Dendrite processes that recieve messages, can be numerous
Schwann cells form a myelin sheath around the axons of the PNS
Axon process that sends messages, usually only one per neuron
Nerve bundles of axons
Polarized when the surface of a resting neuron cell membrane is charged.
Summation additive effect of several sub threshold stimuli.
Synapse junction between two communicating neurons.
Synaptic cleft gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron.
Neurofibril network or threads that are found in the cell body and can extend into the axon; provide structure.
Nerve pathway path of a nerve impulse.
Depolarization decrease in resting potential.
Cell Body portion of a nerve cell that includes a cytoplasmic mass and a nucleus from which nerve fibers extend.
Somatic Nervous System motor pathways of the peripheral nervous system that lead to the skin and skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System portion of the nervous system that controls the viscera.
Chromatophilic substance membranous sacs within cytoplasm of nerve cells that have ribosomes attached to their surfaces.
Neurilemma sheath formed from Schwann cells on the outside of some axons.
Nodes of Ranvier: narrow gaps between Schwann cells.
Trigger zone a sensitive part of an axonwhere a nerve impulse originates.
Unipolar neurons neurons with a single process extending from the cell body that branches into two, one side acting as an ion and the other as a dendrite.
Bipolar neurons neurons with many processes, one of which is an axon and the other is a dendrite.
Multipolar neurons neurons with many processes, one of which is an axon and the others are dendrites.
Ganglia masses of neuron cell bodies, usually outside of the CNS.
Sensory neurons carry nerve impulses from peripheral body parts into the brain or spinal cord.
Interneurons lie entirely in the brain or spinal cord and direct incoming sensory impulses to the appropriate parts for processing and interpreting.
Motor neurons multipolar neurons that carry nerve impulses out of the brain or spinal cord to the effectors.
Potential difference difference in electric charge between two regions.
Resting potential the potential difference between the region inside the membrane and the region outside the membrane.
Threshold stimulus stimulation level that must be exceeded to elicit a nerve impulse.
All-or-none response if a neuron responds, it responds completely or not at all.
Presynaptic neuron the neuron carrying the impulse or the sender.
Postsynaptic neuron the neuron that recieves the input or the reciever.
Synaptic transmission the process of crossing the synaptic cleft with a message.
Neurotransmitters chemical that an axon end secretes on an effector or another neuron.
Synaptic knob tiny enlargement at the end of an axon that secretes a neurotransmitter.
Excitatory neurotransmitters that increase the postsynaptic membrane permeability to sodium ions and bring it closer to threshold.
Inhibitory neurotransmitters that decrease the postsynaptic membrane permeability to sodium ions and make it less likely that threshold will be reached.
Neuronal pools groups of neurons that make hundreds of synaptic connections with each other and work together to perform a common function.
Facilitation subthreshold stimulation of a neuron that increases responsiveness to further stimulation.
Convergence nerve impulses arriving at the same neuron.
Divergence impulses passing into several output neurons.
Sensory fibers afferent fibers; bring sensory information to the CNS.
Motor fibers efferent fibers; carry impulsesfrom the CNS to the effectors.
Sensory nerves nerves that conduct impulses to the brain or spinal cord.
Motor nerves nerves that conduct impulses to muscles or glands.
Mixed nerves nerves that include both sensory fibers and motor fibers.
Reflex arc the simplest nerve pathway that includes only a few neurons and is the structural and functional basis for the reflexes.
Reflex an automatic, subconscious response to stimuli.
Meninges layered membranes that serve to protect the brain and spinal cord.
Dura mater the outermost layer of the meninges.
Arachnoid mater a thin, weblike membrane without blood vessels that lies between the dura and pia maters.
Pia mater a thin membrane that contains many nerves and blood vessels that nourishes the underlying cells of the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal fluid a clear watery fluid that is found in the ventricles of the brain, subarachnoid space of the meninges, and the central canal of the spinal cord.
Spinal cord a slender nerve column tha passes downward from the brain into the vertebral column.
Spinal nerves nerves that branch to the various body parts and connect them with the central nervous system.
Ascending tracts tracts in the spinal cord that carry sensory information to the brain.
Descending tracts tracts in the spinal cord that conduct motor impulses from the brain to the musles and glands.
Cerebrum portion of the brain that occupies the upper part of the cranial cavity and provides higher mental functions.
Brainstem portion of the brain that contains the midbrain, pons, and medullar oblongata.
Cerebellum portion of the brain that coordinates skeletal muscle movement.
Cerbral cortex the outer layer of the cerebrum.
Diencephalon portion of the brain in the region of the third ventricle that includes the thalamus and hypothalamus.
Cerebral hemispheres the large paired structures that constitute the cerebrum.
Motor areas the region of the brain from which impulses to muscles or glnads originate.
Sensory areas a portion of the cerebral cortex that recieves and interprets sensory nerve impulses.
Association areas region of the cerebral cortex controlling memory, reasoning, judgement, and emotions.
Created by: flick224