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drugs of abuse

clinical neuro 3

VTA + nucleus accumbens = reward pathway
first area of projection of reward pathway prefrontal cortex (ie - judgement)
drugs that alter perception w/o causing sensation of reward/euphoria non-addictive drugs of abuse
ex's of non-addictive drugs of abuse PCP?, LSD, ketamine
activated 5HT receptors in PFC LSD
inhibit NMDA PCP and ketamine
most commonly abused opioids morphine, heroin, coedine, oxycodone
location of u opiod receptors GABA neurons
location of k opiod receptors DA neurons
opioid w/o severe withdrawl symptoms codeine
opioid receptor that induces euphoria u receptor
reverses effects of heroin and morphine naloxone
long term heroin recovery treatment methadone
synthetic analog of THC dronabinol
MOA of THC inhibits presynaptic GABA neurons in the VTA
withdrawl symtoms of THC restlessness, irritability, agitation, insomnia, nausea, cramping
GHB MOA agonist at GABAb
common use of GHB date-rape drug?
time of maximal concentration of GHB 30-60 min
no addiction or dependence, but repetitive exposure leads to tolerance hallucinogens
withdrawl symptoms of nicotine irritability and sleeplessness
2 drugs to help with smoking cessation buprioprion, varenicline
BZs MOA activates GABAa
dependence of alcohol evident within 6-12 hrs of cessation of drinking
withdrawal sx of alcohol (6-12 hrs) tremor, N/V, anxiety, agitation, sweating
withdrawal sx of alcohol (24-48 hrs) generalized seizures
withdrawal sx of alcohol (48-71 hrs) DTs (hallucinations, disorientation, etc)
receptors affected by alcohol GABAa, NMDA, 5HT-3, adenosine reuptake
disulfiram MOA inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, causing N/V & dysphoria
can lead to out-of-body &/or near-death experiences PCP , ketamine
recreational inhalants benzene, toluene, NO
cocaine hydrochloride injected/snorted
crack cocaine free base form of cocaine, can be smoked
PNS MOA of cocaine inhibits voltage gated Na+ channels
CNS MOA of cocaine blocks DA reuptake, NE, and 5HT
MDMA ectasy
fosters feelings of intimacy and empathy w/o impairing intellect MDMA
concerns with MDMA use hyperthermia, dehydration, water intoxication, 5HT syndrome
withdrawl sx of MDMA depression
MOA of salvia divinorum k opiod agonist
major sx of salvia divinorum use uncontrollable laughter, elevated mood, introspection
amphetamine/methamphetamine MOA block NT uptake into vesicles and reduce NT release
excess NT in the cytoplasm causes reversal of transporter, and subsequent release of NT into synapse
withdrawl sx of amphetamines dysphoria, drowsiness, insomnia, irritability
method of administration of amphetamines initially pill form, can be smoked; heavy users may inject
MOA of MDMA binds to 5HT transporter
bath salts usually contain MDPV and/or mephedrone
Created by: drhermy