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Philosophy Final

truths before experience independent believed by rationalists a priori
truths after experience believed by Empiricists a posteriori
A person that believes that philosophy is characterized by its confidence in reason, and intuition in particular, to know reality independently of experience. (great European philosophers, Descartes Spinoza and Leibniz) rationalists
believes the philosophy that demands that all knowledge, except for certain logical truths and principles of mathematics, comes from experience. (John, Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume) empiricists
Truths we are born with, which may include tendencies to think a certain ways that are hardwired into our minds innate truths
In Locke, the “blank tablet” metaphor of the mind, in opposition to the doctrine that there are innate ideas. In other words, the mind is a “blank” at birth, and everything we know must be “stamped in” though experience tabula rasa
Cogito, Ergo Sum, Evidence of mind I think, therefore I am
1.) I am holding this piece of wax- subject to change. 2.) My hand is connected to my body. 3.) My body exists. 4.) Therefore, the external world exists Descartes' argument for the existence of his body
Claim that we cannot know. We can’t know something, the external world exist. We can not prove it so there for we can not know it. Exp. You participate in skepticism when the phone rings but you don’t know if the phone is real, but you still answer it skepticism
Everything must be one or the other: Matters of Fact—empirical (there are tigers in India) Truths of Reason – (2+2=4) We do not know if God does or does not exist. Hume's Fork
Inductive Reasoning, hypothesis, evidence including a generalization. There is no reason to believe that the future will resemble the past problem of induction
True Belief Corresponds to reality (ex the cat is on the mat) correspondence model of truth
relations between negative aspects and circular reasoning. All beliefs are coherent and integrated. (true beliefs and sentences cohere to each other) coherence model of truth
Truth is based on functions. How well or poorly a belief functions. pragmatist model of truth
Dependent on who you are may only be true for you. True for self- do not need to justify things about yourself. Down side: Just because you believe it doesn’t make it true. And illusion, no evidence subjective truth
view that societies differ in their basic ethical values. Cultural relativism is the thesis that societies differ. Ethical relativism is the more radical thesis that what is considered right (or wrong) in a given society is not for another relativism
The idea that you need a theory that an object exists over space and time (ex Experiences make you different that you were young, but you are still the same) continuity
Advantages: Less subjective, identity (physical), Individuality, Law upholds this theory.(exp. Fingerprints, DNA) As long as you have your DNA you are the same person. body view
Must perceive that you are perceiving. 2 components- consciousness and memory Memory- remember events from the past Both present in humans Memories because we are conscious, conscious because we have memories memory view
We have memories because we are conscious and we are conscious because we have memories. Memory is dependent upon consciousness, memory produced consciousness as consciousness produces memory Lockean Circle
It’s basic theme is human freedom and responsibility, the lack of any given rules, and the need for us to be responsible for our own actions. Believe in human freedom. Rejects things that put boundaries on us(Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre) Existentialism
Denying your Free Will (Denying that your behaviors are representative of anything, hiding behind a role or label bad faith
Belief that both physical and nonphysical are one in the same. Mind/Body are two of the same (Cartesian interactionisms, Dual Aspect Theory, Pre Established Harmony) dualism
the metaphysical view that only physical matter and its property and its properties exist (Behaviorism, Identity Theory, Functionalism) materialism
Physical Body, Non-Physical mind (processes thought emotion and communicates to the body.) cartesian interactionism
Body/mind aspects of the same thing dual aspect theory
Both body and mind- do not interact. pre-established harmony
Behavior is all that we have- discussion between mind and soul categorized. Side note: Category mistake. Exp. University tour. Show all the buildings. Someone asks where it he University Building behaviorism
brain/mind same thing like Water and H20 identity theory
Mental activity is associated with brain. Behavior inputs. (hear, see, taste, smell) brain processes output is the behavioral response functionalism
A person can make free choices when he or she is not coerced. (coerced-forced or suggested) free will
forced or suggested—often through parental guidance or advertisements. 2 types. Determinism and Fatalism. coercion
A person’s future is determined by: 1.) Laws of Nature and 2.) The past. determinism
What is possible for us to do. Exp. Gravity, being in two places at once, flying living on the sun. Limits what you can actually do. law of nature
Antecedent conditions: all behavior/moments in our lives that create a if…than situation. Causal Chain. Cause… effect. Lessons learned psychologically suggestive. the past
A person has a fate or a destiny (Greek tales) fatalism
God Knows how you will end up. Predetermined. If feels like free will but you don’t actually my your choices, because they are predetermined predestination
Follows the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (quantum jumps) Undetermined choices. The choices are results of quantum jumps. You make a decision that you did not intend to make. indeterminism
hypothesis that one cannot know both the motion and the position of subatomic particle Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Character is Determined Choices can still be free Determinism and free will can be true. (ex You can make choices based on your character) Soft Determinism/Compatibilism
The phenomenon to create a situation to alter a behavior. Pavlov’s dog. Heard the bell, time to eat. The idea that you could go to prison makes people behave better conditioning
Robust sense of Free Will (ex You can do things that you think you can’t, you just choose not to) radical free will
Plato’s Belief that art is an imitation of something else, which is an imitation of something else, and again and again form is beauty
Aristotle’s belief. Uses this word describes how we feel when we cry over something. Emotional release about fictitious events. For example movies. Not crying about something that effects you but about something that is fake catharsis
Hume’s Belief, that art and beauty is based off of the “Standard of taste” Something can be Good, and something can be Liked. There is a difference between liking something and knowing something is good taste (I like it vs its good)
Philosophy of Art and beauty aesthetics
Created by: jenks14