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Tox Final

Cyanide signs Histiotoxic anoxia - bright red mm
Nitrate Nitrite - toxic form. Accumulates in lower plant. Signs - hypemic hopxia, metHgb --> chocolate brown blood
Cantharidin Blister Beetles. Vesicant
Anatoxin Anabena (cyanobacteria) Neurotoxin & anti-cholinesterase
Amatoxin Amanita mushrooms. 4 phases, tend to die from acute hepatic failure
Microcystin Cyanobacteria. Hepatocyte death
Tetanospasmin Tetanus. Blocks inhibitory NTs
Elapid venom Cobra, Coral. Neurotoxin irreversible binds - ascending flaccid paralysis
Botulism toxin Inhibits docking, fusion, and release of ACh - progressive flaccid paralysis
Crotaline venom Rattlesnakes. Cytotoxins, neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, hemolysins, coagulants, anti-coagulants, kalikrein, hyaluronidase
Acer rubrum Red maple. Intravascular hemolysis - Heinz bodies, metHgb
Macadamia Reversible paresis (mainly hind)
Lilium Easter lily, Tiger lily, Day lily Renal tubular necrosis
Vitis Grapes/raisins. Renal damage
Centaurea Yellow Star Thistle Nigropallidal encephalomalacia. Horses
Veratrum Hellbore. Teratogenic - cyclops. Neurotoxin
Xanthium Cocklebur. Inhibits ox phos - liver & renal damage
Quercus Oak. Tannins - GI ulceration, acute renal tubular necrosis
Acetaminophen Liver necrosis + Heinz bodies More toxic to cats Acetylcystein antidote. Ascorbic acid for metHgb.
Amitraz Depression, ataxia, mydriasis Kills cats
Brodifacoum 2nd generation anti-coagulant - longer half life - tx for 4 weeks (oral K1). Lag time of 2-5 days
Bromethalin More risk to cats. Ataxia, cerebral edema, seizures
Cholecalciferol Hypercalcemia, isosthenuria, azotemia. Antidote - pamidronate
Ethylene glycol Ca oxalate nephrosis, acidosis
Zinc phosphide Quick onset, strong emetic Ataxia, seizures, hyperesthesia
Strychnine Severe hyperesthesia, hypersensitivity, extensor rigidity
Metaldehyde Hyperthermia, seizures, hyperesthesia
Warfarin 1st generation anti-coagulant = shorter half life
Ibuprofen Gastric ulcers, renal necrosis
TCA's Sedation vs. seizure Arrhythmia, CV collapse, anti-cholinergic
Organophosphates SLUD MB
OP Antidote 2-PAM
Onions Extravascular hemolysis - Heinz bodies, metHgb
Grapes Renal failure, hypercalcemia
Xylitol Hypoglycemia. Hepatic necrosis
Methylxanthines Chocolate, caffeine Tachycardia, PVCs, CNS excitement
Pyrethrins More risk to cats. Type II inhibit GABA
Created by: mpeitz