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Biology class

1Where does the Calvin cycle take place? stroma of the chloroplast
1The reaction-center chlorophyll of photosystem I is known as P700 because this pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700nm
1Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and hetertrophs? Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nouris themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are organic
1Chloroplasts of plants capture light energy from the sun and convert it to chemical energystored in sugar and other organic molecules. This process is called Photosynthesis
1A large number of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules proteins
1Which type of organelle is primarly involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids smooth endoplasmic reticulum
1Which structure is common to plant and animal cells? mitochondrion
1Which of the following are capable of converting light energy to chemical energy? Chlorplasts
1Which is one of the main energy transformers of cells? Mitochondrion
1Which of the following is a compartment that often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell? vacuole or vacuole central
1What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules? catabolic pathways
1Where does glycolysis take place? cytosol
1Which of the following normally occurs whether or not oxygen(O2) is present? glycolysis
1Which of the following types of molecules are the major structural components of the cell membrane? phospholipids and protiens
1The movement of potassium into an animal cell requires an energy source such as ATP or a proton gradient
1Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones? catabolism
1Which of the following is(are) true for anabolic pathways? They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers
1Which of the following is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics? Energy cannont be created or destroyed
1Choose the pair of terms that correctly completes this sentence: Catabolism is to anabolism as ___________ is to __________. exergonic;endergonic
1Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true? Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction
1Which of the following is considered an open system? An organism
3The centromere is a region in which _________. chromatids remain attached to one another until anaphase.
3What is a chromatid? A replicate chromosome
3Which is the longest of the mitotic stages? metaphase
3Which term describes centromeres uncoupling, sister chromatids separating, and the two new chromosomes moving to opposite poles of the cell? anaphase
3Chromosomes first become visible during which phase of mitosis? Prophase
3The somatic cells derived from a single-celled zygote divide by which process? mitosis
3Which of the following is true concerning cancer cells? They do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition when growing in culture;When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle;They are not subject to cell cycle controls
3When Thomas Hunt Morgan crossed his red-eyed F1 generation flies to each other, the F2 generation included both red-and white-eyed flies. Remarkabley, all the white-eyed flies were male. What was the explanation for this result? The gene involved is on the X chromosome.
3A man with Klinefelter syndrom(47,XXY) is expected to have any of the followin EXCEPT increased testosterone
3A woman is found to have 47 chromosomes, including 3 X chromosomes. Which of the following describes her expected phenotype? Normal female
3Males are more often affected by sex-linked traits than females because males are hemizygous for the X chromosome
3A Barr body is normally found in the nucleus of which kind of human cell? Stomatic cells of a female only
3A cell that has 2n + 1 chromosomes is trisomic
3The frequency of Down syndrom in the human population is most closely correlated with which of the following Age of the mother
3Pea plants were particularly well suited for the use of Mendel's breeding experiments for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that peas have an unusually long generation time
3What is the difference between a monohybrid cross and a dihybrid cross? A dihybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for two characters and a monohybrid only one
3A cross between homozygous purple-flowered and homozygous white-flowerd pea plants results in offspring with purple flowers. This demonstrates dominance
3The F1 offspring of Mendel's classic pea cross always looked like one of the two parental varities because one phenotype was completely dominant over another
3What was the most significant conclusion that Gregor Mendel drew from his experiments with pea plants? traits are inherited in discrete units, and are not the results of "blending"
3When crossing an organism that is homozygous recessive for a single trait with heterozygote, what is the chance of producing an offspring with the homozygous recessive phenotype? 50%
3A woman has six sons. The chance that her next child will be a daughter is 1/2
3What is a genome? The complete complement of an organism's genes
3A cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically different The statement is true for meiosis I only
3Homologous chromosomes synapse and crossing over occurs The statement is true for meiosis I only.
3Chromatids are separated from each other The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II
3Independent assortment of chromosomes occurs the statement is true for meiosis I only
3Chiasmata are what we see under a microscope that let us know which of the following is occurring? Crossing over
3Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis? Synapsis of chromosomes
3A karyotype results from which of the following? The ordering of human chromosome images
3A gene's location along a chromosome is known as which of the following? Locus
4The nitrogenous base adenine is found in all members of which group? ATP,RNA, and DNA
4A particular triplet of bases in the template strand of DNA is 5' AGT 3'. The corresponding codon for the mRNA transcribed is 3' UCA 5'
4A possible sequence of nucleotides in the teplate strand of DNA that would code for the polypeptide sequence phe-lue-lie-val would be 3'AAA-GAA-TAA-CAA 5'
4What amino acid sequence will be generated based on the following mRNA codon sequence? met-ser-ser-lue-ser-lue
4Which of the following is not true of a codon? it extends from one end ofa tRNA molecule
4The anticodon of a particular tRNA molecule is complementary to the corresponding mRNA codon
4Which of the following is not true of RNA processing? Exons are cut out before mRNA leaves the nucleus
4Using Figure 17.5, identify a 5'3'sequence of nucleotides in the DNA template strand for an mRNA coding for the polypeptide sequence Phe-Ori-Lys 5'-CTTCGGGAA-3'
4Which of the following mutations would be most likely to have a harmful effect on an organism? a single nucleotide insertion downstream of, and close to, the start of the coding sequence
4Which component is not directly involved in translation DNA
4Genetically engineered plants include a transgenic rice plant that can help prevent vitamin A deficiency
4Which of the following is one of the technical reasons why gene therapy is problematic? Transferred genes may not have appropriately controlled activity
4Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes), was Cuview's attempt to explain the existence of the fossil record
4What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin? Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging
4During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result" misconception? characteristics acquired durig an organism's life are generally not passed on through genes
4Which group is composed entirely of individuals who maintained that species are fixed(unchanging) Aristotle,Linnaeus, and Cuvier
4Charles Darwin was the first person to propose a Mechanism for evolution that was supported by evidence
4In Darwin's thinking, the more closely related two different organisms are the more recently they shared a common ancestor
4The theory of evolution is most accurately described as an overarching explanation, supported by much evidence, for how populations change over time
4In modern terminology, diversity is understood to be a result of genetic variation. Sources of variation for evolution include all to the following except recombination at fertilization
4A trend toward the decrease in the size of plants on the slopes of mountains as altitudes increase is an example of a cline
4Which is a true statement concerning genetic variation? It is created by the direct action of natural selection
4In a Hardy=Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilbrium, the frequence of the allel a is 0.4. What is the percentage of the population that is homozygous for this allele? 16
4In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilbrium, the frequency of allele a is 0.1. What is the percentage of the population that is heterozygous for this allele? 18
4In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of allele a is 0.2. What is the frequency of individuals with Aa genotype? 0.32
4No two people are genetically identical, except for identical twins. The chief cause of genetic variation amoung human individuals is the reshuffling of alleles in sexual reproduction
4Dog breeders maintainthepurity of breeds by keeping dogs of different breeds apart when thy are fertile. This kind of isolatin is most similar to which of the following reproductive isolating mechanisms? Habitat isolation
4Theoretically, the production of sterile mules by interbreeding between female horses and mal donkeys should strengthen postzygotic barriers between horses and donkeys
4The biological species concept is inadequate for grouping asexual organisms
4A defining characteristic of allopatric speciation is geographic isolation
4Which of the following statements about speciation is correct Speciation is a basis for understanding macroevolution
4Why does the DNA double helix have a uniform diameter Purines pair with pyrimidines
4What kind of chemical bond is found between paired bases of the DNA double helix hydrogen
4It became apparent to Watson and Crick after completion of their model that the DNA molecule could carry a vast amount of hereditary information in which of the following? sequence of bases
5Why are viruses referred to as parasites? They cannot reproduce outside of a host cell
5Which of the following molecules make up the viral envelope? Glycoproteins
5Most human-infecting viruses are maintained in the human population only. However, a zoonosis is a disease that is transmitted from other vertibrates to humans, without requiring viral mutation. Which of the following is the best example of a zoonosis rabies
5Which of the following accounts for someone who has had a herpesvirus-medicated cold sore or genital sore getting flare-ups for the rest of life? Copies of the herpesvirus genome permanently maintained in host nuclei
5RNA viruses require their own supply of certain enzymes because host cells lack enzymes that can replicate the viral genome
5Which of the following characteristics, structures, or processes is common to both bacteria and viruses? Genetic material composted of nucleic acid
5Emerging viruses arise by all of the above mutation of existing viruses;the spread of existing viruses to new host species;The spread of existing viruses more widely within their host species
5To cause a human pandemic, the H5N1 avian flu virus would have to become capable of human-to-human transmission
5Which gas was least abundant in Earth's early atmosphere, prior to 2 billion years ago? O2
5In their laboratory simulations of the early Earth, Miller and Urey observed the abiotic synthesis of Amino acids
5Which of the factors below weaken the hypothesis of abiotic synthesis of organic monomers in early Earth's atmoshpere? 1 and 3;The relatively short time between intense meteor bombardment and apperance of the first life forms;Uncertainty about
5Approximately how far back in time does the fossel record extend? 3,500,000,000 years
5Adaptive radiations can be a direct consequence of four of the following five factors. Select the exception. genetic drift
5A genetic change that caused a certain HOX gene to be expressed along the tip of a vertebrate limb bud instead of farther back helped to make possible the evolution of the tetrapod limb. This type of change is illustrative of a change in developmental gene or in its regulation that altered the spatial organization of body parts.
5Which of these illustrates the correct representation of the binomial scientific name for African lion? Pantera leo
5A phylogenetic tree that is "rooted" is one at whose base is located the common ancestor of all taxa depicted on that tree
5The correct sequence, from the most to the least comprehensive, of the taxonomic levels listed here is kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
5The common housefly belongs to all of the following taxa. Assuming you had access to textbooks or other scientific literature, knowing which of the following should provide you with most specific information about the common housefly? genus Musca
5Which is the bacterial structure that acts as a selective barrier, allowing nutrients to enter the cell and wastes to leave the cell plasma membrane
5Which statement about bacterial cell walls is false? Cell walls prevent cells from dying in hypertonic conditions
5Which of these is the most common compound in the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria? peptidoglycan
5Penicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits enzymes from catalyzing the synthesis of peptidoglycan, so which prodaryotes should be most vulnerable to inhibition fy penicillin? gram-positive bacteria
5Protists are alike in that all are Eukaryotic
5Which group is incorrectly paired with its description? red algae -- acquired plastids by secondary endosymbiosis
5Based on the phylogenetic tree in fig 28.3 in the text, which of the following statements is correct? The most basal(first to diverge) eukaryotic supergroup cannont be determined.
5Which protists are the same eukaryotic "supergroup" as land plants? A and C are both correct Green algae and red algae
5In life cycles with an alternation of generations, multicellular haploid forms alternate with multicellular diploid forms
5The most recent common ancestor of all land plants was probably similar to modern-day members of which group? chrophytes
5The structural integrity of bacterial is the peptidoglycan as the structural integrity of plant spores is to sporopollenin
5Which kind of plant tissue should lack phragmoplasts? tissues performing nuclear division without intervening cytokineses
5The following are common to bath charophytes and land plants except lignin
5A number of characteristics are very similar between chrophytes and members of the kingdom Platae. Of the following, which characteristic does not provide evidence for a close evolutionary relationship between these two groups Alternation of generations
5Where in an angiosperm woud you find a megasporangium within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower
5A fruit is most commonly A mature ovary
5With respect to angiosperms, which of the following is incorrectly paired with its chromosome count? megaspore-2n
5Which of the following is not a characteristic that distinguishes gymnosperms and angiosperms from other plants? Alternation of generation
5Gymnosperms and angiosperms have the following in common except Ovaries
5Which of the following do all fungi have in common? absorption of nutrients
5The hydrolytic digestion of which of the following should produce monomers that are aminated(have a amine group attached) molecules of beta-glucose? A and C only insect exoskeleton and fungal cell walls
5If all fungi in an enviroment that perform decomposition were to suddenly die, then which group of organisms should benefit most, due to the fact that their fungal competitors have been removed? Prokaryotes
5When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of dead organic matter, what are most likely to appear with the food source soon thereafter? fungal enzymes
5which of the following is a characteristic of hyphate fungi(Fungi featureing hyphae) They are adapted for rapid directional growth to new food sources
5Which of the following is chared characteristic of all chordates dorsal, hollow nerve cords
5What is one characteristic that separates chordates from all other animals? Post-anal tail
5Which of these are characteristics of all chordates during at least a portion of their development? A,B,and C a dorsal, hollow nerve cord;pharyngel clefts;post-anal tail
5Chordate phryngel slits appear to have functioned first as Suspension-feeding devices
5Which of the following statements would be least acceptable to most zoologists? The extant cephalochordates are the immediate ancestors of the fishes.
Biology is The scientific study of life
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Epitasis
Which of the folowing is NOT classified as a Domain Domain Prokarya
All the organisms on our campus make up a Community
All organisms are composted of matter
When I combine the elements sodium(Na) with Chlorine(Cl) my product is sodium chloride. Sodium Chloride is called a Compound
What is the charge of an electron, proton, and neutron(in that order) Negative, Positive, Nuetral
What subatomic particles can be found in the nucleus? None of the Above
Which is NOT an abundant element in living organisms Helium
These are found on the periodic table as substances that cannot be broken down by chemical reactions Elements
A hypothesis is all of the above or An educated quess;A tentative, unproven explanation for a phenomenon;testable
The word science is derived from Latin and means To know
A water molecule is Polar covalent compound
Which is NOT one of water's properties that facilitate an enviroment for life? Versatile as a solute
Cohesion is When a hydrogen bond holds water molecules together
Kinetic Energy is Energy of Motion
Acidic solutions have a pH value less then 7
Basic solutions have a pH value greater then 7
Organic chemistry is the study of Carbon and its compounds
How many bonds can Carbon make 4
Hydrocarbons contain Carbon and hydrogen
All living things are made up of large biological molecules an example of one of those large biological molecules would be All of the above Carbohydrates;Lipids;Nucleic Acids
The most common monosaccharide is C6 H12 O6 or C8 H16? C6 H12 06
A disaccharide is formed when A dehydration reation joins two monosaccharides
The major function of adipose cells are/is Both A&B Cushion organs and energy storeage
Which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize Hydrogen bonds
Research indicates that Albuerol, a drug for bronchial muscles consists only of one enantiomer, the R-Form. Why should this drug consist of only one enantiomer form Different enantiomers may have different or opposite physiological effects
Created by: chill005