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APES Oil Water

Review Oil and Water topics

Aquifers Underground caverns and porous, layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock through which groundwater flows.
Natural recharge a process in which renewable aquifers are replenished naturally by precipitation that percolates downward through soil and rock.
Surface water the freshwater that flows across the earth’s land surface and into rivers, streams, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, wetlands, and estuaries.
Surface runoff precipitation that does not return to the atmosphere by evaporation or infiltrate into the ground.
Watershed The land from which surface water drains into a river, lake, wetland, or other body of water.
Drainage basin Synonym of watershed
Hydrologic connection This exists because water and groundwater eventually flow into rivers, lakes, estuaries, and wetlands.
Reliable runoff the amount of surface runoff that we can generally count on as a stable source of freshwater from year to year.
Water hot spots in these 17 western states the fierce competition for scarce water to support growing urban areas, irrigation, recreation, and wildlife could trigger intense political and legal conflicts between states and between farmers and cities during the next 20 ye
Groundwater overpumping Pumping the earth of water until it reaches extremely small amounts for reserve
Land subsidence The sinking action of land. Makes recharging impossible
Sink Holes Formed when the roof of an underground cavern collapses after being drained of the groundwater that supports it and creates a large surface crater. Can appear suddenly and unexpectedly.
Dam a barrier constructed to contain the flow of water or to keep out the sea
Reservoir lake used to store water for community use
Aqueduct a conduit that resembles a bridge but carries water over a valley
California Water Project One of the world’s largest water transfer projects. Uses a maze of giant dams, pumps, and aqueducts to transport water from water-rich in Northern California to southern California’s heavily populated, arid and semiarid agricultural regions and cities.
Desalination (desalting) Involves removing dissolved salts from ocean water or from brackish (slightly salty) water in aquifers or lakes for domestic use. Use to increase supplies of freshwater.
Distillation heating saltwater until it evaporates, leaves behind salts in solid form, and condenses freshwater.
Reverse osmosis uses high pressure to force saltwater through a membrane filter with pores small enough to remove salt.
Microfiltration Synonym of “reverse osmosis”.
Drip irrigation Above or below ground pipes or tubes that deliver water to individual plant roots.
Microirrigation system
Soil moisture detectors a small portable meter that indicates soil moisture, enabling farmers to cut their irrigation water use by 33-66% in many cases.
Bitumen Gooey, black, high-sulfur, heavy oil extracted from tar sand and then upgraded to synthetic fuel oil. See tar sand.
Breeder nuclear fission reactor Nuclear fission reactor that produces more nuclear fuel than it consumes by converting nonfissionable uranium-238 into fissionable plutonium-239
coal Solid, combustible mixture of organic compounds, mixed with various amounts of water and small amounts of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. It forms in several stages as the remains of plants are subjected to heat and pressure over millions of years.
coal gasification Conversion of solid coal to synthetic natural gas (SNG).
coal liquefaction Conversion of solid coal to a liquid hydrocarbon fuel such as synthetic gasoline or methanol.
crude oil Gooey liquid consisting mostly of hydrocarbon compounds and small amounts of compounds containing oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. Extracted from underground accumulations, it is sent to oil refineries, where it is converted to heating oil, diesel fuel, gaso
fissionable isotope Isotope that can split apart when hit by a neutron at the right speed and thus undergo nuclear fission. Examples are uranium-235 and plutonium-239
kerogen Solid, waxy mixture of hydrocarbons found in oil shale rock. Heating the rock to high temperatures causes the kerogen to vaporize. The vapor is condensed, purified, and then sent to a refinery to produce gasoline, heating oil, and other products. See also
kilowatt Unit of electrical power equal to 1,000 watts
liquefied natural gas (LNG) Natural gas converted to liquid form by cooling to a very low temperature
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Mixture of liquefied propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) gas removed from natural gas and used as a fuel.
meltdown The melting of the core of a nuclear reactor
natural gas Underground deposits of gases consisting of 50-90% by weight methane gas (CH4) and small amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds such as propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10)
net energy Total amount of useful energy available from an energy resource or energy system over its lifetime, minus the amount of energy used (the first energy law), automatically wasted (the second energy law), and unnecessarily wasted in finding, processing, conc
nuclear energy Energy released when atomic nuclei undergo a nuclear reaction such as the spontaneous emission of radioactivity, nuclear fission, or nuclear fusion
nuclear fission Nuclear change in which the nuclei of certain isotopes with large mass numbers (such as uranium-235 and plutonium-239) are split apart into lighter nuclei when struck by a neutron. This process releases more neutrons and a large amount of energy. Compare
nuclear fusion Nuclear change in which two nuclei of isotopes of elements with a low mass number (such as hydrogen-2 and hydrogen-3) are forced together at extremely high temperatures until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus (such as helium-4). This process releases a
Petroleum Also known as Crude Oil, gooey liquid consisting mostly of hydrocarbon compounds and small amounts of compounds containing oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. In oil refineries it is converted ti heating oil, diesel fuel, gasoline, tar, and other material.
oil sand Deposit of a mixture of clay, sand, water, and varying amounts of a tarlike heavy oil known as bitumen. Bitumen can be extracted from tar sand by heating. It is then purified and upgraded to synthetic crude oil. See bitumen
oil shale Fine-grained rock containing various amounts of kerogen, a solid, waxy mixture of hydrocarbon compounds. Heating the rock to high temperatures converts the kerogen into a vapor that can be condensed to form a slow-flowing heavy oil called shale oil. See k
petrochemicals Chemicals obtained by refining (distilling) crude oil. They are used as raw materials in manufacturing most industrial chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides, plastics, synthetic fibers, paints, medicines, and many other products
radioactive waste Waste products of nuclear power plants, research, medicine, weapon production, or other processes involving nuclear reactions. See radioactivity
shale oil Slow-flowing, dark brown, heavy oil obtained when kerogen in oil shale is vaporized at high temperatures and then condensed. Shale oil can be refined to yield gasoline, heating oil, and other petroleum products. See kerogen, oil shale
synfuels Synthetic gaseous and liquid fuels produced from solid coal or sources other than natural gas or crude oil
synthetic natural gas (SNG) Gaseous fuel containing mostly methane produced from solid coal
tailings Rock and other waste materials removed as impurities when waste mineral material is separated from the metal in an ore
Oil Sand Also known as tar sand a deposit of a mixture of clay, sand, water, and carrying amounts of a tar like heavy oil known as bitumen (bitumen can be extracted then heated to and purified to to synthetic crude oil.)
Net Energy Total amount of useful energy available from an energy resource or energy system over its lifetime minus the amount of energy used
Net Energy Ratio The ratio of useful energy produced to the energy used to produce it. When the ratio is less than 1 there is a net energy loss.
Nonrenewable Energy Energy that cannot be replaced once it is used or energy that is not being replaced as fast as it is being used
Oil Reserves deposits where crude oil can be extracted
Created by: jweiland1