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Weiland APES

Flash card to help with prep for APES test

affluenza Unsustainable addiction to overconsumption and materialism exhibited in the lifestyles of affluent consumers in the United States and other developed countries.
agricultural revolution Gradual shift from small, mobile hunting and gathering bands to settled agricultural communities in which people survived by learning how to breed and raise wild animals and to cultivate wild plants near where they lived. It began 10,000/12,000 years ago.
biodiversity Variety of different species (species diversity), genetic variability among individuals within each species (genetic diversity), variety of ecosystems (ecological diversity), and functions such as energy flow and matter cycling needed for the survival of
common-property resource Resource that people normally are free to use; each user can deplete or degrade the available supply. Most are renewable and owned by no one. Examples are clean air, fish in parts of the ocean not under the control of a coastal country, migratory birds, g
conservation Sensible and careful use of natural resources by humans. People with this view are called conservationists.
conservationist Person concerned with using natural areas and wildlife in ways that sustain them for current and future generations of humans and other forms of life. Compare conservation biologist, ecologist, environmentalist, environmental scientist, preservationist, r
developed country Country that is highly industrialized and has a high per capita GNP. Compare developing country.
developing country Country that has low to moderate industrialization and low to moderate per capita GNP. Most are located in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Compare developed country.
doubling time The time it takes (usually in years) for the quantity of something growing exponentially to double. It can be calculated by dividing the annual percentage growth rate into 70.
durability Ability of earth's various systems, including human cultural systems and economies, to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions indefinitely. This is another name for sustainability.
ecological footprint Amount of biologically productive land and water needed to supply each person or population with the renewable resources they use and to absorb or dispose of the wastes from such resource use. It measures the average environmental impact of individuals or
ecologist Biological scientist who studies relationships between living organisms and their environment. Compare conservation biologist, conservationist, environmentalist, environmental scientist.
ecology Study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy; study of the structure and functions of nature.
economic development Improvement of living standards by economic growth. Compare economic growth, environmentally sustainable economic development.
economic growth Increase in the capacity to provide people with goods and services produced by an economy; an increase in gross domestic product (GDP). Compare economic development, environmentally sustainable economic development, sustainable economic development. See g
environment All external conditions and factors, living and nonliving (chemicals and energy), that affect an organism or other specified system during its lifetime.
environmental degradation Depletion or destruction of a potentially renewable resource such as soil, grassland, forest, or wildlife that is used faster than it is naturally replenished.
environmental ethics Human beliefs about what is right or wrong environmental behavior.
environmental movement Efforts by citizens at the grassroots level to demand that political leaders enact laws and develop policies to curtail pollution, clean up polluted environments, and protect pristine areas and species from environmental degradation.
environmental revolution Cultural change involving halting population growth and altering lifestyles, political and economic systems, and the way we treat the environment so that we can help sustain the earth for ourselves and other species.
environmental scientist Scientist who uses information from the physical sciences and social sciences to understand how the earth works, learn how humans interact with the earth, and develop solutions to environmental problems.
environmental worldview How people think the world works, what they think their role in the world should be, and what they believe is right and wrong environmental behavior (environmental ethics).
environmentalism A social movement dedicated to protecting the earth’s life support systems for us and other species.
environmentalist Person who is concerned about the impact of people on environmental quality and believe that some human actions are degrading parts of the earth's life-support systems for humans and many other forms of life. Compare conservation biologist, conservationis
environmentally sustainable economic development Development that encourages forms of economic growth that meet the basic needs of the current generations of humans and other species without preventing future generations of humans and other species from meeting their basic needs and discourages environm
environmentally sustainable society Society that satisfies the basic needs of its people without depleting or degrading its natural resources and thereby preventing current and future generations of humans and other species from meeting their basic needs.
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; responsible for managing federal efforts to control air and water pollution, radiation and pesticide hazards, environmental research, hazardous waste, and solid-solid waste disposal.
exhaustible resource See nonrenewable resource.
exponential growth Growth in which some quantity, such as population size or economic output, increases at a constant rate per unit of time. An example is the growth sequence 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and so on; when the increase in quantity over time is plotted, this type of gro
free-access resource See common-property resource.
frontier environmental worldview Viewing undeveloped land as a hostile wilderness to be conquered (cleared, planted) and exploited for its resources as quickly as possible. Compare environmental wisdom worldview, planetary management worldview, spaceship-earth worldview.
globalization Broad process of global social, economic, and environmental change that leads to an increasingly integrated world. See information and globalization revolution.
gross domestic product (GDP) Annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and organizations, foreign and domestic, operating within a country.
human-centered environmental worldviews Humans are the planet's most important species and should become managers or stewards of the earth. See planetary management worldview, stewardship worldview.
Hunter/gatherers People who get their food by gathering edible wild plants and other materials and by hunting wild animals and fish. Compare agricultural revolution, environmental revolution, industrial/medical revolution, information and globalization revolution.
Industrial/medical revolution Use of new sources of energy from fossil fuels and later from nuclear fuels, and use of new technologies, to grow food and manufacture products. Compare agricultural revolution, environmental revolution, hunter/gatherers, information and globalization rev
information and globalization revolution Use of new technologies such as the telephone, radio, television, computers, the Internet, automated databases, and remote sensing satellites to enable people to have increasingly rapid access to much more information on a global scale. Compare agricultur
multiple use Use of an ecosystem such as a forest for a variety of purposes such as timber harvesting, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and recreation. Compare sustainable yield.
nonpoint source Large or dispersed land areas such as crop fields, streets, and lawns that discharge pollutants into the environment over a large area. Compare point source.
nonrenewable resource Resource that exists in a fixed amount (stock) in various places in the earth's crust and has the potential for renewal by geological, physical, and chemical processes taking place over hundreds of millions to billions of years. Examples are copper, alumi
output pollution control See pollution cleanup.
per capita ecological footprint Amount of biologically productive land and water needed to supply each person or population with the renewable resources they use and to absorb or dispose of the wastes from such resource use. It measures the average environmental impact of individuals or
per capita GDP Annual gross domestic product of a country divided by its total population at mid-year midyear. It gives the average slice of the economic pie per person. Used to be called per capita GNP. See gross domestic product.
perpetual resource An essentially inexhaustible resource on a human time scale. Solar energy is an example. Compare nonrenewable resource, renewable resource.
point source Single identifiable source that discharges pollutants into the environment. Examples are the smokestack of a power plant or an industrial plant, drainpipe of a meatpacking plant, chimney of a house, or exhaust pipe of an automobile. Compare nonpoint sourc
pollutant A particular chemical or form of energy that can adversely affect the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms. See pollution.
pollution An undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of air, water, soil, or food that can adversely affect the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms.
pollution cleanup Device or process that removes or reduces the level of a pollutant after it has been produced or has entered the environment. Examples are automobile emission control devices and sewage treatment plants. Compare pollution prevention.
pollution prevention Device or process that prevents a potential pollutant from forming or entering the environment or sharply reduces the amount entering the environment. Compare pollution cleanup.
poverty Inability to meet basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter.
recycling Collecting and reprocessing a resource so that it can be made into new products. An example is collecting aluminum cans, melting them down, and using the aluminum to make new cans or other aluminum products. Compare reuse.
renewable resource Resource that can be replenished rapidly (hours to several decades) through natural processes. Examples are trees in forests, grasses in grasslands, wild animals, fresh surface water in lakes and streams, most groundwater, fresh air, and fertile soil. If
reuse Using a product over and over again in the same form. An example is collecting, washing, and refilling glass beverage bottles. Compare recycling.
rule of 70 Doubling time (in years) = 70/(percentage growth rate). See doubling time, exponential growth.
social capital Positive force created when people with different views and values find common ground and work together to build understanding, trust, and informed shared visions of what their communities, states, nations, and the world could and should be. Compare natur
solar capital Solar energy from the sun reaching the earth. Compare natural resources.
sound science Scientific data, models, theories, and laws that are widely accepted by scientists considered experts in the area of study. These results of science are very reliable. Compare frontier science, junk science.
sustainability Ability of a system to survive for some specified (finite) time.
sustainable development See environmentally sustainable economic development.
sustainable living Taking no more potentially renewable resources from the natural world than can be replenished naturally and not overloading the capacity of the environment to cleanse and renew itself by natural processes.
tragedy of the commons Depletion or degradation of a potentially renewable resource to which people have free and unmanaged access. An example is the depletion of commercially desirable fish species in the open ocean beyond areas controlled by coastal countries. See common-prop
Created by: jweiland1