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general soil science


LEO says GER Loss of Electron is Oxidation Gain of Electron is Reduction
sources of nitrogen (5) biological fixation (organisms), decomposition of N by precipitation, fertilizer, plant residues (organisms), manure (organisms)
losses of soil Nitrogen (5) plant removal, leaching, gaseous losses, erosion (wind and water), ammonium fixation
Mineralization is: the conversion of organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen
immobilization converting inorganic N to organic N
Soil fertility is: the study of soils' availability to supply nutrients for plant growth
what does Phosphorous do for plants? (4) photosynthesis, crop maturation, root development, strengthening cell walls in grasses
importance of Sulfur to plants? (3) protein synthesis, photosynthesis, strengthening cell walls
importance of Potassium for plants? (5) activator of plant enzymes; photosynthesis; protein synthesis; starch formation; improves drought tolerance (by lowering osmotic water potentials)
Pedology is.... the science that deals with formation, morphology, and classification as landscape components
Weathering: refers to teh breakdown and changes in rocks at or near the EArth's surface produced by biological, chemical, and physical agents or combinations of them
Crystallization induces disintegration
thermal processes induce volume change
wetting and drying change grain-size
hydration induces decompaction
hydrolysis induces recombination
oxidation induces leaching
carbonation induces dissolved ions
growth induces accumulation
decomposition induces mineralization
burrowing induces pulverization
lichens can cause biochemical changes that enhance nutrient uptake
soil formation equation: S = f(cl, b, r, p, t)
5 factors of soil formation climate; biota; parent material; topography; time
Eluviation is the process of ____ and results in an ____ horizon removing soil material; Ae
Accumulation of organic matter results in an _____ horizon Ah
Technical classifications are developed for a specific purpose
Natural classifications are based on "natural" groupings of soils (ex. Canadian system)
A horizon near soil surface; eluviation; accumulation of OM
B horizon illuviation; clay; iron and aluminum oxides
C horizon limited (or no) alteration thru soil-forming processes operative in the A and B horizons
Well drained sites produce which 3 horizons? L; F and H
L accumulation of undecomposed residues
F accumulation of partially decomposed residues
H accumulation of decomposed matter
poorly drained horizons? Of; Om; Oh
Of (fibric) high in undecomposed fibrous material
Om (mesic) intermediately decomposed fibrous material
Oh (humic) dominated by well decomposed organic residues (fibrous material)
Ah organic matter
Ae eluvial
Ap mechanically disturbed (plough)
Ahe organic matter/eluviated
Aej thin eluvial horizon
Bt clay
Bf Fe/Al oxides
Bh organic matter
Bm modified by hydrolysis, oxidation or solution. possesses different color
Bg gleyed. grey color and/or mottles
Bca enriched secondary carbonates
Bmk slight development of Ca-carbonates
Bn presence of high % of Na ions
Ck Ca-carbonates
Cs soluble salts
Cy horizon affected by cryoturbation
what's cryoturbation? frost action
Cz perennially frozen horizon
Cg gleyed horizon; grey golor, mottles
erosion control practices increased veg cover; increased OM; surface roughness
Created by: jrpcleer