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Lecture Unit 3

Capacitation Period of sperm conditioning in female reproductive tract. Prepares acrosome for fertilization. Bumped against cilia.
Fertilization Combines the genetic material from the sperm and oocyte. Occurs in the uterine tube. Most commonly the ampula.
Three phases of fertilization 1. Corona Radiata Penetration. 2. Zona Pellucida Penetration. 3. Fusion of Sperm and Oocyte Plasma Membranes.
1. Corona Radiata Penetration Acrosome Reaction: acrosome releases enzymes to enable sperm to penetrate teh corona radiata.
2. Zona pellucida Penetration Acrosome continues to release enzymes to penetrate the zona pellucida. Zona pellucida hardens after 1 sperm penetrates, preventing polyspermy.
3. Fusion of Sperm and Oocyte Plasma Membranes Once the nucleus of sperm enters teh secondary oocyte, the oocyte completes second meiotic division. Sperm and ovum fuse, forming a single nucleus.
Blastocyst Trophoblast and Inner Cell Mass (Embryoblast). Implants into the stratum functionalis on day 7.
Implantation 7 days after fertilization. Zona pellucida begins to break down. Trophoblast subdivides: Cytotrophoblast-inner layer, Syncitiotrophoblast-outer layer. Burrows into the stratum functionalis of the endometrium.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Syncytiotrophoblast produces hCG. Signals the woman's body to continue uterine growth instead of menstruation. hCG levels are high enough in blood to be detected in urine after 2 weeks of pregnancy. Detected in pregnancy tests.
Development of the Placenta Maternal portion from stratum functionalis. Fetal portion from chorion. Mother & baby's blood never mix. Transfer: nutrients, gases, bacteria, viruses, alcohol, drugs, antibodies. Umbilical cord connects fetus to placenta.
Chorionic villia Branches of fetal blood vessels
Sexual Differentiation of the Embryo No difference before week 5. Genital (Gonadal) ridges become gonads in week 5.
Presence of Testis Determining Factor (TDF) gene causes genital ridges to become testes. Males have a TDF gene on the Y chromosome.
Absence of TDF gene causes genital ridges to develop into ovaries. Females have no Y chromosome or TDF gene.
Development of Internal Organs Embryos initially contain both male & female duct systems: paramesonephric & mesonephric ducts. Presence or absence of certain genes & hormones determines which duct system will degenerate.
Internal Male Development Paramesonephric duct degenerates. mesonephric duct remains: becomes epididymis & vas deferens in male embryos.
Internal Female Development Mesonephric duct degenerates. Paramesonephric duct remains: Becomes oviducts and uterus in female embryos.
External Development Genital tubercle becomes clitoris in females & glans penis in males. Labioscrotal swelling becomes labia majora in females & scrotum in males.
True Hermaphrodite Have both ovarian & testicular structures & ambiguous (or female) external genitalia. Very rare. Typically the ovarian & testicular structures are not functional.
Psudohermaphrodite Genetic sex and phenotypic sex don't match. Too much or too little testosterone during development. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia-1 in 10,000-18,000. Fetal adrenal glands produce excessive androgen. Female fetus appears more male. Much more common.
Stages of labor 1. dilation 2. expulsion 3. placental
Dilation Begins with first regular contractions & ends when cervix is fully dilated by baby's head. Longest stage.
Expulsion Lasts from full dilation to delivery.
Placental Eliminates placenta. Accomplished w/i 15 minutes after birth of infant.
Reasons for a Cesarean Section Previous C-section. Deformes or male-like pelvis. Placenta previa-covers cervix. Placenta abruption-detaches before baby is born. Emergency. Atypical presentation of neonate.
Neonate Presentations Typical: Cranial end first. Baby faces mother's posterior side. Atypical: Back presentation: baby faces mother's anterior side. Breach: baby's caudal end is first.
Created by: punkaloo