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basics of plant growth / genetic engineering and biotechnology

what are two ways that growth occurs? 1. enlargement of a single leaf, fruit, stem, or root 2. the formation of new cells
Three areas of growth 1. the stems and roots 2. axils of leaves 3. cambium layer in stems and roots
differentiation is the change in cells that results in the formation of a specialized part
development growth and differentiation
genes basic unit of inheritance
gametes egg and sperm
alleles different forms of the same gene, same location
genome complete set of instructions for making a plant or any organism (like blueprints)
chromosomes tightly coiled threads of DNA organized into structures
consists of two strands wrapped around each other DNA
what is DNA made of? Sugar and phosphate molecules
how are the strands of DNA connected? nitrogen-containing chemicals called bases
adenine binds with what? thymine
cytosine binds with what? guanime
why do specific bases have to bind with each other? Space
the rules of base pairing are often referred to as what? Watson-Crick base pairing
gene specific sequence of nucleotide's bases and they carry information of protein construction.
proteins provide the structural components of cells, tissues, and enzymes
what are proteins made up of? amino acids
how many different amino acids are found in proteins 20
Codons three DNA bases that control what protein is made
1 protein needs how many base pairs? about 3000
protein-coding is done through what mRNA
how are genes expressed? RNA
where is RNA transcribed in the nucleus
what happens to the RNA after it is made? moved to the cytoplasm where it serves as a template for protein synthesis
what is gene action controlled by? hormones and nutrients
heredity controls the factors affecting characteristics of any organism
what are 5 different plant hormones 1. auxins 2. cytokins 3. gibberellins 4. abscisic acid 5. ethylene
what is auxins responsible for? elongations and stem bending
what is cytokins responsible for? cell division
what is gibberellins responsible for? elongation
what is abscisic acid responsible for? many functions
what is ethylene responsible for? ripening
turgor pressure internal water pressure extending the walls
what environmental factor effects nutrient uptake and hormonal activity? temperature and light
what environmental factor effects pigmentation? wavelengths
what are all physiological activity directly related too temperature
what are plant hormones and regulators sometimes referred to as? bio-stimulants or bio-inhibitors
what do plant hormones and regulators do? work inside cells to inhibit or stimulate specific enzymes or enzyme systems and assist in regulating plant metabolism
plant hormones can be used to do what in agriculture? 1. prevent lodging 2. synchronize maturity 3. weed control 4. promote germination 5. improve crop yields
with biotechnology are we acceleration the natural selection process? yes
with the use of biotechnology is plant breeding any different then the natural selection process? yes because it is not natural and we may be creating organisms that might not otherwise have existed.
what is the advantage of biotechnology over selective breeding? 1. more specific 2. faster 3. flexibility 4. less expense
how does biotechnology cause less expense? 1. less pesticide use 2. less cost to the environment 3. less medications for animals 4. less crop loss
biotechnology definition methods for the manipulation of genetic information to create life forms that may not have emerged in nature.
4 major scientific revolutions of this century 1. unlocking the atom 2. escaping earth's gravity 3. computer revolution 4. biotechnology
genetic engineering (manipulation) process of taking genes from their normal location in one organism and either transferring them elsewhere or putting them back into the original organism in a different combination
what is recombinant DNA (rDNA) genes that have been cut, reconstructed, and inserted into existing DNA
how do we break DNA at certain points enzymes
plasmids small circles of DNA that pass easily from cell to cell
insulin yeast or bacteria based insulin is replacing animal based insulin
interferon protein that helps with MS, Cancer, and Viruses
Hormones BST
what are current uses of biotechnology 1. resistance to pests 2. resistance to disease 3. higher Quality food
Created by: rachhuiz