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Here are terms that will most likely show up on the upcoming assessment!!!

abiotic nonliving factors, e.g. light, temperature, wind patterns, rocks, soil, pH, pressure, etc. in an environment
biotic living or once living factors, e.g. trees, butterflies, cats, bacteria
adaptation a characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environment or reproduce
asexual reproduction reproduction in which an organism produces one or more copies of itself, such as by fission or budding
asteroids small rocky bodies, about 1,000 km or less in diameter, in space often found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
atmosphere the mixture of gases surrounding Earth and other planets
atom the smallest particle of an element that can exist either alone or in combination
balanced forces equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions, the object does not move
biological diversity the range of natural variety of species in an ecosystem (biodiversity)
biosphere the part of the world in which life can exist
cell the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all organisms
cell theory theory that all known living things are made up of cells, the cell is the structural and functional unit of all living things, and all living cells come from pre-existing cells
chemical change process in which substances are changed into one or more different products
chemical energy a form of potential energy in which energy is stored in chemical bonds; e.g. energy stored in a battery or food
comet a small body composed of ice and rock that travels in an elliptical orbit around the sun
compound a substance made of a combination of two or more elements held together by chemical bonds that cannot be separated by physical means
condensation process of a gas changing to a liquid, such as water vapor into water droplets
conduction the transfer of energy by direct contact, from one substance to another
constructive processes processes that build up landforms on Earth’s surface such as crust formation, volcanoes, and sediment deposition
continental drift the gradual movement of continents by tectonic plates under Earth’s surface which causes land masses to move toward or away from one another
convection heat transfer by moving particles in fluids, and the thermal energy that they carry
decomposer an organism that eats dead or decaying matter
dependent variable the factor measured or observed to obtain results (sometimes referred to as the responding variable), usually graphed on the y-axis
deposition when sediments are carried by wind or water and are deposited in a new location
destructive processes process that breaks down landforms on Earth’s surface such as weathering and erosion
electrical energy energy that results from the change in motion or position of electrical charges
element one of the known chemical substances that cannot be broken down further without changing its chemical properties
evaporation the process of a liquid changing into a vapor or gas
evolution change over time
force push or pull that changes the motion or shape of an object
fossil fuels fuel derived from ancient organic remains; e.g. peat, coal, crude oil, natural gas
genotype the genes that an organism possesses for a particular trait- genotype is not just the expressed gene; instead, it includes any recessive genes masked by the dominant gene of a coded pair
geosphere the solid portion of Earth including landforms, rocks, minerals and soil, as well as the interior
global warming the gradual increase of the temperature of Earth's lower atmosphere as a result of the increase in greenhouse gases
greenhouse effect warming of Earth's atmosphere attributing to a build up of carbon dioxide or other gases
heredity the passing of traits from parents to offspring by genes
hydrosphere all water on Earth
hypothesis a testable explanation for an observation or scientific problem
igneous rock forms as molten rock cools and becomes solid
independent variable the one factor in an experiment that is determined and changed by the experimenter (sometimes referred to as the manipulated variable), usually graphed on the x-axis
inertia the resistance of an object to a change in the speed or direction of its motion
innate response an organism's natural reaction to a stimulus
kinetic energy energy of motion
levels of organization cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms
lithosphere the solid, outer layer of the Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
mass a measure of the amount of matter in an object
meiosis the process that occurs in sex cells (sperm and egg) in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half
metamorphic rock preexisting rock that is restructured by high temperature and pressure
mitosis stage of the cell's life cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell
nonrenewable resource a resource that forms at a rate that is much slower than the rate at which it is consumed; e.g. oil
ozone layer layer of atmosphere composed mainly of ozone (O3) 19-48 km above Earth that shields Earth from most of the sun's ultraviolet rays
phenotype physical or visible characteristics of an organism that are determined by its alleles
photosynthesis chemical process in which a plant cell or protist uses energy from sunlight along with carbon dioxide and water to produce food (glucose) and oxygen
potential energy stored energy, energy of position
precipitation any form of water that falls from the clouds; e.g. rain, snow, hail, sleet
producer any organism such as a plant or protist that is able to make food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
proton subatomic particle with a positive charge found in the nucleus of an atom
neutron subatomic particle with no charge found in the nucleus of an atom
radiation energy transfer without direct contact, as in the transport of heat from the sun to Earth
reflect to bounce back (e.g. light) from a surface
refract the bending of waves (light) as they enter a different medium
renewable resource a natural resource that is capable of replenishing; e.g. solar, wind
response an action following a stimulus
revolution the movement of an object around another, central object; e.g. Earth revolves around the sun
rift valley a valley that develops when two tectonic plates move apart and the land in the middle drops down
Ring of Fire an area associated with plate boundaries around the Pacific Ocean that has a large amount of volcanic and earthquake activity
rotation the turning of an object on its central axis
sedimentary rock formed from fragments and mineral grains of varying sizes from pre-existing rocks, remains or products of organisms, the products of chemical action, or a mixture of these
sexual reproduction producing a new generation by the combining male and female sex cells
simple machine a machine with few or no moving parts that provides a mechanical advantage and can be combined to make other machines
species a group of organisms that are capable of breeding to produce fertile offspring
stimulus something that causes a response
transpiration the passing of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular system to the atmosphere
weathering process by which materials change when exposed to conditions at or near Earth's
work force exerted on an object causing it to move a distance
Created by: jenningsk