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Ch 13 Ecosystems

Levels of Organization & Energy Flow w/in an ecosystem

levels of organization within the living world organism, populations, communities, ecosystems, biomes, biosphere.
population All of the individuals of a given species in a specific area or region at a certain time.
members of a population compete for food, water, space, and mates.
community All the different populations in a specific area or region at a certain time
___ involve many types of interactions among populations communities
ecosystem One or more communities in an area and the abiotic factors
abiotic factors nonliving parts of an ecosystem
examples of abiotic factors water, sunlight, air, temperature, and soil
biomes Individual ecosystems grouped together according to the climate and the predominant vegetation
habitat The place where an organism lives in order to obtain its food, water, shelter and other things needed for survival
niche The particular role of an organism in its environment including type of food it eats, how it obtains its food and how it interacts with other organisms
energy roles determined by how the organism obtains its energy and how they interact with other organisms in the environment
examples of energy roles producer, consumer, or decomposer
consumer an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
producer an organism that can make its own food
decomposer organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the environment
food chains Use pictures or words and arrows to show the movement of energy through the trophic levels of organisms
trophic level indicates the position that an organism occupies in the food chain—what it eats and what eats it.
food webs Describe the organisms found in interconnecting food chains using pictures or words and arrows
energy pyramid Show the amount of energy that moves from one trophic level to another in a food chain
The most energy is available at the ___ level of the pyramid producer
Energy availability ___ as it moves up the energy pyramid decreases
population density the number of organisms in a given amount of space
birth main way that organisms are added to a population
birth rate the number of births in a population during a certain amount of time
death the main way that organisms leave a population
death rate the number of deaths in a population during a certain amount of time
immigration when organisms move into a population from another environment
emigration when part of a population leaves the environment
limiting factors affect the number of organisms an environment can supoort
examples of limiting factors climate, availability of food, water, space, and shelter
carrying capacity the maximum number of organisms that can survive in a particular ecosystem
climate refers to the temperature and amount of rainfall in a particular environment
Created by: Ms. Phillips