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Ch. 7 (1-2)

P. 220-230

Animal-like protists, or protozoans, include sarcodines, ciliates, zooflagellates, and sporozoans. Like animals, these protists are heterotrophs. Most protozoans move by using pseudopods, cilia, or flagella
Funguslike protists include water molds, downy mildews, and slime molds. Like fungi, these protists are heterotrophs, have cell walls, and use spores to reproduce.
Plantlike protists, or algae, include euglenoids, dinoflagellates, diatoms, green algae, red algae, and brown algae. Like plants, these organisms are autotrophs.
PROTAZOAN: An animal-like protist.
PSUEDOPOD:A “false foot” or temporary bulge of the cell membrane used for feeding and movement in some protozoans.
CONTRACTABLE VACUOLE: The cell structure that collects extra water from the cytoplasm and then expels it from the cell.
CILIA: The hairlike projections on the outside of cells that move in a wavelike manner.
SYMBIOSIS: A close relationship between two organisms in which at least one of the organisms benefits.
MUTUALISM: A type of symbiosis in which both partners benefit from living together.
SPORE: A tiny cell that is able to grow into a new organism.
ALGA: A plantlike protist.
PIGMENT: A colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color.
Sarcodines move and feed by forming pseudopods; also use them to trap food
Ciliates have structures called cilia; use cilia to move, obtain food, and sense the environment
Ciliates have complex cells
paramecium has two nuclei large nucleus controls the everyday tasks small nucleus functions in reproduction
Paramecia usually reproduce asexually by binary fission. Sometimes, they reproduce by conjugation
Ameba uses Pseudopods Paramecium use Cilia Zooflagellate use Flagella
third type of protozoans are called zooflagellates -animal-like protists that use flagella to move
Many zooflagellates live inside the bodies of other organisms
Sometimes a zooflagellate harms the animal in which it lives
This is true of the zooflagellate called Giardia. This zooflagellate is a parasite in humans. When a person drinks water containing Giardia, the zooflagellates attach to the person’s intestine, where they feed and reproduce.
^^^^ The person develops a serious intestinal condition. This can occur even in unpopulated areas where wild animals, such as beavers, deposit Giardia into streams, rivers, and lakes.
fourth type of protozoans, the sporozoans
Sporozoans are parasites that feed on the cells and body fluids of their host
Some have flagella and some depend on hosts for transport. One even slides from place to place on a layer of slime that it produces.
Many sporozoans have more than one host. For example, Plasmodium is a sporozoan that causes malaria
second group of protists are the funguslike protists -heterotrophs -most fungi use spores to reproduce.
Like fungi, funguslike protists are heterotrophs, have cell walls, and use spores to reproduce. Unlike fungi, however, all funguslike protists are able to move at some point in their lives
three types of funguslike protists are water molds, downy mildews, and slime molds.
most fungi use spores to reproduce
Most water molds and downy mildews live in water or in moist places
Slime molds live in moist soil and on decaying plants and trees
When the food supply decreases or other conditions change, some tiny slime molds creep together and form a multicellular mass.
Spore-producing structures grow out of the mass and release spores, which can develop into a new generation of slime molds.
Plantlike protists, which are commonly called algae, are even more varied than the animal-like and funguslike protists.
The one characteristic that all algae share is that, like plants, they are autotrophs.
Some algae live in the soil, others live on the barks of trees, and still others live in fresh water and salt water
Algae that live on the surface of ponds, lakes, and oceans are an important food source for other organisms in the water.
most of the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere is made by these algae.
Algae range greatly in size. Some algae, such as diatoms, are unicellular. Others are groups of unicellular organisms that live together in colonies. Still others, such as seaweeds, are multicellular
Euglenoids are green, unicellular algae that are found mostly in fresh water. Unlike other algae, euglenoids have one animal-like characteristic—they can be heterotrophs under certain conditions
When sunlight is available, euglenoids are autotrophs that produce their own food. However, when sunlight is not available, euglenoids will act like heterotrophs by finding and taking in food from their environment.
Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae covered by stiff plates that look like a suit of armor.
Diatoms are unicellular protists with beautiful glasslike cell walls
Although most green algae are unicellular, some form colonies, and a few are multicellular
Almost all red algae are multicellular seaweeds
Many of the organisms that are commonly called seaweeds are brown algae. In addition to their brown pigment, brown algae also contain green, yellow, and orange pigments
Red tides occur when a population of algae increases quickly in ocean waters. Some algae can secrete toxins that poison animals.
Nutrients in a lake or pond build up over time, causing an increase in the numbers of algae. An accelerated rate of eutrophication can lead to the deaths of many organisms in the lake or pond.
ALGAL BLOOM: The rapid growth of a population of algae.
RED TIDE: An algal bloom that occurs in salt water.
EUTROPHICATION: The buildup over time of nutrients in freshwater lakes and ponds that leads to an increase in the growth of algae.
Red tides are dangerous when the toxins that the algae produce become concentrated in the bodies of organisms that consume the algae
Saltwater algal blooms are commonly called red tides because the algae that grow rapidly often contain red pigments and turn the color of the water red
Dinoflagellates and diatoms are two algae that frequently bloom in red tides.
red tides occur most often when there is an increase in nutrients in the water
Increases in ocean temperature due to climate changes also affect the occurrence of red tides.
The rapid growth of algae in a pond or lake triggers a series of events with serious consequences
Created by: Avery R.