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Sociology Exam 2

Ch. 7-10

culture the set of ideas and things handed down from generation to generation in a particular group or society; culture is both a product of people's actions and a constraint on their actions
material culture things that humans make or adapt from the raw stuff of nature (computers, houses, walking sticks)
nonmaterial culture made up of intangible things (ideas about truth, beauty) 5 categories: symbols, beliefs, language, value, norms
symbol anything that represents something else to more than one person, social things that evoke powerful emotion
language organized set of symbols, can’t have a culture without it, facilitates cooperation within a culture
gestures part of language (ex- nodding head up and down communicates a different message than shaking it back and forth)
norms socially approved ways of doing things, rules about behavior, way to judge the importance of a norm is to observe the response
William Graham Sumner divided norms into categories
folkways casual norms, no serious consequences (ex-pizza for breakfast)
mores important norms, more serious (ex-murder)
taboos most serious norms (ex-cannibalism)
sanctions visible responses to behavior; may be positive or negative, formal or informal
values general or abstract ideas about what is good and desirable, as opposed to what is bad and undesirable in a society (ex- honesty, liberty, success)
beliefs people’s ideas about what is real and what is not real, what people accept as factual
ideology shared beliefs that are distorted by economic or politcal condition (used by Marx and Engles)
social instituions an accepted and persistent constellation of statuses, roles, values, and norms that respond to important societal needs (ex-religions)
cultural leveling when cultural diffusion increases, differences between cultures decrease (ex-McDonalds is in all countries)
cultural diffusion process in which cultural things are adopted, adopting material culture is easier than instead of thing with meaning that don’t mesh with values (ex- Americans adopt sushi bars from Japanese)
subculture groups of people within society that share values, norms, beliefs, or material culture that sets them apart from other people in that society (ex-amish) usually disappear when they get adopted by larger culture
counterculture form of subculture where shared norms threaten parent culture (ex- KKK, Nazis)
ubiquitous culture is present everywhere, everyday objects have power (ex- I will eat breakfast even though I’m not hungry because it’s most important meal of day)
social structure established network of relationships connecting different statuses in a group, including norms for interactions among different statuses
status position a person occupies in a social structure (ex-family: mom)
achieved status something you work for (ex- college graduate)
ascribed status something you’re born into (ex- ethnicity)
roles sum total of expectations about the behavior attached to a social status
role conflict demands of roles clash (ex- court judge & parent or babysitter & lover)
role strain demanding expectations (ex- student meets needs of teachers & friends)
status inconsistency individual occupies multiple statuses that don’t mesh with expectations, person with ascribed status achieves inconsistent status (ex-father goes back to college as student)
master status the main status individuals identify others with (ex- female professor: gender, asian doctor: race) it is upsetting when master status is linked to ascribed rather than achieved
groups one or more people with whom we share a common identity and interact within a social structure (ex- family, friends)
social aggregation collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time (ex- fans at a football game)
primary groups where most important socialization takes place, where you learn the rules of social life and cooperation (ex-family)
formal organization secondary group when people band together to achieve specific goals and formalize relationships with each other (ex- stockholders make money)
bureaucracy nonelected government of something, max weber says it is most important, he created an ideal type that stripped away the unnecessary parts
iron cage people become so trapped in following rules that they lose sight of why they are working so hard
nepotism favoring one’s relatives over others, bureaucracies are never pure, people bend the rules
goal displacement the process becomes more important than the outcome, (ex-finishing paperwork, patients charts instead of treating them)
society the totality of people and social relations in a given geographic space
self sufficiency the defining characteristic of a society, resources must meet all needs of people without having to go outside of society to find them
societal needs continuous supply of new members, healthcare, jobs, education, defense, economy, all met through social institutions
social institution before was seen as solution to societal needs, now and accepted and persistent constellation of statuses, roles, values, and norms that respond to important societal needs
ideal types max weber, an ‘analytic construct’(ex- the family as an institution: status- mother, expectation- provide for children) people who stray from ideal type get negative sanctions (ex- raising children without marriage)
habitualized actions all human activity is subject to following routines to make life easier, any routine you follow because it’s the way you like to do things (personal preference vs institutions and what you ought to follow)
interdependency of institutions change in one institution tends to bring about change in others (ex- same sex marriage legality, globalization)
socialization the process by which people acquire cultural competency and through which society perpetuates the fundamental nature of existing social structures, process by which individual is turned into a person
social self the values, beliefs, ideas, and decision making strategies and the general way in which people live their lives, cannot develop one without social interaction
Charles Horton Cooley believed social self arises out of interaction with others, based on our perception of how others see us, we develop our reflected selves
looking glass self 3 elements 1. Imagine how we look to other person 2. Imagine other person’s reaction to our appearance 3. Have feeling of pride or shame
George Herbert Mead believed that the social self was the product of ongoing interactions between two phases: the I and Me
I and Me me is based on how one sees others as seeing oneself, I is personal reaction to the situation, (ex- wanting to eat all donuts but only eating one to not look fat)
play simple imitative behaviors that lead to children appreciating the perspective of other people, no rules
games have rules and roles that are impersonal, play and games is how children develop I and Me
role taking to take on the role of another and see how things look from that point of view
generalized other attitude of the whole community
agents of socialization family, schools, peers, and the workplace
family children are wholly dependent on them, role is reproducing existing social arrangements, main source of ascribed status, parents pass on their outlooks
school provides knowledge, hidden curriculum: to prepare students to accept their place in social structure
peer groups have fun, act as socializing agent, learn how they are expected to behave independent of adult authority, gender-role behavior
workplace used work to identify with, has effects on intellectual flexibility, self-concept, step 1. Make career choice 2. Anticipatory socialization 3. Find employment 4. Experience difficulty
anticipatory socialization learning about, playing at a work role before entering it (adolescence)
rites of passage ceremonies or rituals marking important transitions from status to status within life cycles (ex- marriage)
total institutions a place of residence and work where a large number of like situated people are cut off from society for a period of time leading a formally administered life (ex- prisons, mental hospitals)
resocialization take away individuals self and give him a new one keeping with the needs of the social institutions (ex- marine corps)
degradation ceremonies goal to degrade individual, take away his self to give him a new one
depersonalization no longer call men by name, take away possessions, no longer individuals, same uniforms and haircuts, loss of former identity
Whorf-Sapir Hypothesis language helps shape people’s perception and the way they think (make a list of things that exist but don’t have names)
reify we often reify culture, aka treat it as if it were something more than just human creations
microsociology small group interactions
macrosociology large scale structures
small world hypothesis everyone is interconnected, you probably know someone who’s a stranger through 5 connections or links
feral children ‘untamed’ or wild, lacking cultural competency due to social isolation, lack of social interaction
Non-sociological theories of human development suggest that if you had a good childhood/ background, you’ll turn out well
Freud Id=instinctive urges Superego= says no way Ego= makes it socially acceptable Sublimation: transformation of unwanted impulses into something less harmful
Piaget stages of cognitive development= 1. Sensory motor (0-2) 2. Preoperational (2-7) 3. Concrete (7-11) 4. Formal (adolescence)
reference groups groups we use as standards against which we evaluate ourselves and provides a model of how to behave, primary: family secondary: soc class
self-fulfilling prophecy when the very prediction of an event causes that event to happen
relative deprivation is the experience of being deprived of something to which one believes oneself to be entitled to have. It refers to the discontent people feel when they compare their positions to others and realize that they have less than them.
relative gratification feeling satisfied with what you have compared to those around you
independent variable a variable that is thought to cause a change in another variable
dependent variable a variable that is thought to be influenced by another variable
Created by: jenks14