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air mass a large body of air covering hundreds or thousands of square kilometers that has reletively uniform temp., humidity, and pressure.
source region a region with relatively uniform temp. and humidity where air masses form.
warm air mass an air mass that is warmer than the surface on which it moves
cold air mass an air mass that is colder than the surface on which it moves
stationary front a zone of contact between two disimilar air masses when neither is advancing. It usually results in no change in weather for several days.
warm front the advancing surface of a warm air mass as it pushes against and over a cooler air mass
cold front the advancing surface of a cool air mass as it moves under a warm air mass
anticyclone a circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure
mountain breeze a breeze that is blown down a mountain into the valley
waterspout a tornado that occurs at sea
cyclone a large-scale, atmospheric wind-and-pressure system characterized by low pressure at its center
storm surge an abnormal rise in the level of the sea
squall line a line or extended narrow region within which squalls or thunderstorms occur, often several hundred miles long.
occluded front a composite front formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front and forces it aloft.
monsoon any persistent wind established between water and adjoining land.
pressure gradient force horrizontal force exterted on a mass of air that has a higher pressure on one side than on the other
geostrophic wind a wind whose velocity and direction are mathematically defined by the balanced relationship of the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis force
jet stream strong, generally westerly winds concentrated in a relatively narrow and shallow stream in the upper troposphere of the earth.
valley breeze a breeze that blows up the mountain side from a valley
trade wind any wind that blows in one regular course, or continually in the same direction.
hurricane a strong , large area cyclonic storm strong fast wind speeds
eye the circullar center of low pressure in a hurricane
lightning rod a rodlike conductor installed to divert lightning away from a structure by providing a direct path to the ground.
land breeze a coastal breeze blowing at night from land to sea, caused by the difference in the rate of cooling of their respective surfaces.
polar easterlies winds blowing constantley from northeast to west east
forked lighting lightning consisting of branches connected to the main stroke
tornado a violent , narrow, rotating, funnel shaped local windstorm
doldrums a belt of calms and light baffling winds
horse latitudes edges of the trade-wind belt, characterized by high atmospheric pressure with calms and light variable winds.
subpolar low a prevailing low pressure belt at approximetly 60 degrees north or south latitude
polar high an area of high atmoshperic pressure
thunderstorm a transient storm of lightning and thunder, usually with rain and gusty winds, sometimes with hail or snow, produced by cumulonimbus clouds.
thunderhead the upper portion of a cumulus cloud characterized by dense, sharply defined, cauliflowerlike upper parts and sometimes by great verticality.
lighting a brilliant electric spark discharge in the atmosphere,
stepped leader prior to a lightning stroke, a zig zag colum of highly ionized air
return stroke a faint discharge of blue light from the top of a thunderstorm cloud that propagates upward
typhoone what hurricanes are called in the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean regions
storm swell the larger than normal surface waves
sea breeze a thermally produced wind blowing from a cool ocean surface onto adjoining warm land.
prevailing westerlies The west-to-east winds that occur in the temperate zones of the Earth.