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Urinary System

Lecture Unit 3

Urinary System functions Remove waste products from bloodstream: converts plasma filtrate into urine. Storage 7 excretion of urine. Regulation of blood pressure & volume. Secretion of erythropoietin (EPO): Regulation of erythrocyte production.
Kidneys Located by the posterior abdominal wall, suspended by fat. Left kidney is 2cm superior to right. Retroperitoneal. Adrenal gland on top. Paired organ. Symmetrical, bean shaped & reddish brown. f
Anatomy of the Kidney Renal capsule, cortex, medulla, columns, pyramids (8-15 per kidney), papilla (apex of pyramid), Minor calyx-1 per pyramid, Major calyx-2-3 per kidney, Renal pelvis-collects urine & transports to ureter, bladder, urethra
After what structure does urine not change anymore? (comes out of body the same). Minor calyx
Nephron Functional unit of kidney. ~1mil in each. Consists of renal corpuscle-glomerulus & glomerular capsule. Renal tubule. Cortical nephrons (85%)-small ones. Juxtamedullary nephrons (15%)-long ones-dip down into medulla
Glomerulus Ball of capillaries
Renal tubule Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). Nephron Loop (Loop of Henle). Distal convoluted tubule (DCT).
Urine Formation Filtration (blood to tubules). Tubular Reabsorption (tubules to blood). Tubular Secretion (blood to tubules). 180L of plasma leaves the bloodstream to kidney tubule system. 99% goes back into blood.
Filtration Water dissolved solutes in plasma passively move out of glomerular capillaries into the capsular space. Fluid called filtrate.
Tubular Reabsorption Substances move by diffusion or active transport from the tubule back to the blood. Called tubular fluid. 99% of blood plasma is reabsorbed.
Tubular Secretion Active transport of solutes out of blood into the tubules. 1% becomes urine.
Renal Corpuscle Composed of Glomerulus (Fenestrated capillaries), Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule. Site of filtration: afferent arteriole is wider than efferent. Passive filtration. Blood in efferent is cleaner & thicker than afferent.
Proximal convoluted tubule Simple cuboidal epithelium w/ microvilli (brush border)-increase surface for reabsorption. Actively reabsorbs from tubular fluid: nutrients, electrolytes, plasma proteins. Surrounded by peritubular capillaries.
Nephron Loop (Loop of Henle) Thick portions are simple cuboidal epithelium. Thin portions are simple squamous epithelium. Reabsorbs: water, sodium, and chloride. Surrounded by vasa recta capillary network.
Distal Convoluted Tubule Lined w/ simple cuboidal epithelium-contain less microvilli than the PCT. Regulated secretion of potassium & hydrogen. Regulated reabsorption of sodium & water-aldosterone & ADH. Surrounded by peritubular capillaries.
Collecting ducts Fluid from the distal convoluted tubule drains into collecting ducts. Water absorption by ADH occurs in collecting ducts when dehydrated. When tubular fluid leaves the duct it is called urine.
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (Label) Juxtaglomerular cells & Macula Densa regulate blood pressure. When macula densa cells detect low bp or low solute concentration, they stimulate the JG cells to secrete renin which increases aldosterone secretion.
Juxtaglomerular cells Modified smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole.
Macula Densa Group of modified epithelial cells in a distal convoluted tubule.
Ureters Retroperitoneal. Carries urine from renal pelvis to bladder. Urine in renal pelvis causes peristaltic waves. 3 layers: mucosa-transitional epithelium. muscularis-longitudinal & circular layers. adventitia-connective tissue.
Retroperitoneal Behind parietal peritoneum.
Urinary Bladder Collapsible, muscular sac. Immediately posterior to pubic symphysis. Stores & expels urine. Trigone functions as funnel to direct urine into urethra as bladder contracts. Grows and shrinks. 4 layers.
Four Layer of the Urinary Bladder Mucosa-transitional epithelium. Submucosa-dense irregular CT. Muscularis-detrusor muscle-muscle of bladder-contracts to get urine out. Advenitia-areolar CT.
Urethra Drains urine from teh bladder. Fibromsucular tube lined w/ a mucous membrane. Internal & external urethral sphincters. External urethral orifice.
Internal urethral sphincter Thickening of detrusor muscle. Smooth muscle. Involuntary. Bottom of bladder.
External urethral sphincter Portion of urogenital diaphragm. Skeletal muscle. Voluntary.
Three regions of the Male Urethra 1. Prostatic urethra. 2. Membranous urethra-shortest; external urethral sphincter on either side. 3. Spongy urethra-longest.
Micturition or Urination Controlled by centers in the pons & sacral spinal cord. Parasympathetic division stimulates it. Sympathetic inhibits it.
Micturition Reflex Stretch receptors in the bladder are stimulated. Internal & external urethral sphincters relax. Detrusor & abdominal muscles contract.
Urinary Incontinence Inability to control urine expulsion. Most common-old women. 2categories: Stress incont-exercise/coughing. Urge incont-not getting warning message-immediate bladder contraction.Causes-weight gain/pelvic surgery/diabetes/constipation/pregnancy/bigprostate.
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) Bacteria (E. coli) or fungi multiply in urinary tract. More common in women-short urethra, proximity to anus, sex. Symptoms: dysuria, urgency, pressure in pelvic region, fever, nausea, vomiting, back pain. Testing through urinalysis.
Urethritis Inflammation in urethra.
Cystitis Inflammation in bladder.
Pyelonephritis Inflammation in kidney.
Urolithiasis or Kidney Stones Formed from crystalline minerals-75%calcium. Causes-inadequate fluid intake, diet. Small stones can be asymptomatic & easily passed. Larger stones can become stuck in urinary tract. May cause severe cramping, nausea/vomiting, hematuria. Ultrasound/surgery
Renal Failure Dialysis: Blood cycled through a machine. Done several times/week. Kidney transplant: immunosuppressant drugs taken throughout life. You may donate a kidney while living.
Kidney Variations and Anomalies Renal agenesis. Pelvic kidney. Polycystic kidney. Horseshoe kidney. Supernumerary kidneys. duplicated or bifid ureter (divides). Multiple renal vessels.
Kidney Development Metanephros becomes adult kidney. Metanephric duct becomes ureter.
Created by: punkaloo