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Digestive Part 2

Lecture Unit 3

Small Intestine Lined w/ simple columnar epithelium. Suspended by the messentary proper. Functions: majority of chemical digestion: bile from liver, enzymes from pancreas. Nutrient absorption.
Regions of the small intestine Duodenum-10 inches. Jejunum-8 feet. Ileum-11 feet.
Three things that increase surface are a for absorption 1. Plicae circulares (circular folds): macroscopic, slow the chyme. 2. Villi: microscopic. 3. Microvilli: microscopic. Apical surface of epithelial cells. Brush border.
Hernias Intestines go through unintended opening. Hiatal, Umbilical, Inguinal, Femoral (lateral side).
Functions of the Large intestine Absorbs water and electrolytes. Forces feces toward rectum.
Special features of the large intestine 1. Teniae coli-3 longitudinal layers of muscle. find appendix where they meet. 2. Haustra-sacks or bulges. 3. Epiploic appendages-fat filled pouches of visceral peritoneum.
Large Intestine Structures Cecum (lower R. quad.), Ileocecal Valve, Appendix, Ascending colon, Hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal.
Rectum Well-developed muscle. Able to generate strong contractions.
Rectal Valves Prevent feces from being passed with flatus (gas).
Anal Canal Internal anal sphincter is involuntary smooth muscle. External anal sphincter is voluntary skeletal muscle. Anal sinuses.
Anal Sinuses Pressure from passing fecal matter causes excess mucous to be released. Lubricates the anal canal during defecation.
Appendicitis Fecal matter obstructs the appendix. Swells and bursts if untreated. Peritonitis: inflammation of peritoneum.
Intestinal obstruction Any hindrance to movement of chyme or feces through intestine. Exs. tumor, hairball.
Inflammatory bowel disease Periodic inflammation of intestinal wall. Symptoms include cramping, diarrhea, weight loss, intestinal bleeding.
Colorectal Cancer Second most common cancer. Most arise from intestinal polyps. Colonoscopy.
Digestive Accessory Organs Not art of the GI tract, but they secrete substances into it to facilitate digestion. Include: pancreas, liver, gallbladder.
Pancreas exocrine functions Produces digestive enzymes and dumps them into the duodenum.
Lobes of the Liver Right, Left, Quadrate, Caudate. Upper right quadrant. Regenerative! Regrows to fill up available space. Label.
Liver Functions Production of bile. Dexification of poisons, metabolites, & drugs. RBC recycling w/ spleen. Storage of excess nutrients. Production of proteins: albumin, globulin, fibrinogen.
Gall Bladder Stores & concentrates bile. Bile is made in the liver. Ducts dump into duodenum. Label: left hepatic, right hepatic, common hepatic, cystic, common bile ducts.
Cirrhosis Liver cells destroyed and replaced by connective tissue. Caused by alcoholism. One cause of jaundice; build up of bilirubin from RBC recycling. Causes yellowing of sclera and skin. Treatment: liver transplant. Liver rots inside you.
Viral Hepatitis Inflammation of liver. Flu-like symptoms and jaundice.
Gallstones Crystallization of cholesterol.
Peritoneal Cavity Parietal and visceral peritoneum. Serous membranes of abdominopelvic cavity. Space between contains lubricating serous fluid.
Mesenteries Double layer folds of peritoneum. Support intraperitoneal organs. Includes: greater omentum, lesser omentum, messentary proper.
Retroperitoneal Organs that lie directly against the body wall (superficial to parietal peritoneum): Most of the duodenum, pancreas, ascending & descending colon, rectum, kidneys.
Development Accessory organs bud off of the primitive gut tube.
Created by: punkaloo