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A&P Chapter 14


What transports nutrients, oxygen, wastes, and hormones/ helps maintain the stability of the interstial fluid; and distributes heat? Blood
____ blood is slightly heavier and three to four times more viscous than water. Whole
Blood volume is usually about what % of body weight? 8%
The average sized adult has a blood volume of about how many liters? 5 liters
A blood sample is usually about what percent of red blood cells? 45%
The white blood cells and platlets account for less than what percent? 1%
What is the remaining 55% part of a blood sample that is straw-colored? Plasma
What mixture includes water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular waste? Plasma
Blood cells originate in red bone marrow from what cells Hematopoietic stem cells
A protein called _____ stimulates large cells called megakaryocytes toproliferate thrombopoietin
biconcave discs, thin near their centers and thicker around their rims erythrocytes
oxygen carrying pigment in red blood cells hemoglobin
_____ eventually come apart, yeilding platelets megakaryocytes
Prolonged oxygen deficiency hypoxia
when hemoglobin combines with oxygen, the resulting ____ is bright red oxyhemoglobin
when the oxygen is released, the resulting _____ is darker deoxyhemoblobin
the largest blood cells, 2-3x bigger than red blood cells, kidney-shaped nuclei, mature into macrophages monocytes
without cytoplasmic granules agranulocytes
respond to thrombopoietin and yield platelets megakaryocytes
red blood cells erythrocytes
white blood cells of immunity; b & t cells lymphocytes
leukocytes with granular cytoplasm granulocytes
divides and gives rise to specialized/differentiated cells that can be of any type stem cells
contain histamine and heparin granules, which promote inflammation and inhibit blood clotting and account for less than 1% of the leukocytes basophils
young red cells that contain a netlike structure for a day or two before maturing (remainder of ER) reticulocytes
white blood cells that protect against disease leukocytes
platelets thrombocytes
moderate allergic reactions and defend against parasitic infections; 1-3% of total leukocytes eosinophils
pac man cells that phagocytize debris and microbes macrophages
lobed nucleus with 2-5 segs, called PMNs, 1st WBCs to arrive at infection site, phagocytize microbes, 54-62% of leukocytes neutrophils
the oxygen-carrying portion of blood is called hemoglobin
the iron-carrying portion of hemoglobin in the blood is called heme
a deficiency of red blood cells, or a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin they contain results in a condition called anemia
oxygen-deficiency hypoxia
bluish skin cyanotic
when hemoglobin breaks down, heme decomposes into iron and the green pigment called biliverdin
biliverdin is then converted into an orange pigment called bilirubin
what is the lifespan of red blood cells 120 days
why are red blood cells destroyed to create a homeostatic environment by controling the rate of blood cell production
how are red blood cells destroyed rupture as they pass through the spleen or liver
where are red blood cells destroyed in the spleen or liver then macrophages phagocytize them
what 2 hormones cause leukocytes to differentiate? Where? interleukins and colony-stimulating factors. both are found in red bone marrow
what is the lifespan of leukocytes 12 hours
how do leukocytes move and squeeze between cells of small blood vessels diapedesis which allows leukocytes to leave the circulation, then they use ameboid motion to self propel
damaged cells release chemicals that attract leukocytes a process called positive chemotaxis
a decrease in the amount of white blood cells leukopenia
an increase in the amount of white blood cells leukocytosis
a drop in platelet count, thrombocytopenia
limits thrombin formation antithrombin
contraction of smooth muscles in vessel walls vasospasm
an abnormal blood clot forms in a vessel thrombus
smallest plasma protein but accounts for 60% albumins
insoluble protein threads in clot formation fibrin
in muscle/brain tissues; stores energy bonds creatine phosphate
soluble plasma protein in coagulation fibrinogen
a clot dislodges, breaks loose embolus
36% of plasma proteins; alpha/beta/gamma globulins
blockage formed in vessel during coagulation platelet plug
factor 2, alpha globulin, liver makes, converts prothrombin
factor 2a, fragments fibrinogen (factor 1) thrombin
stopping of bleeding when blood vessels are damaged is called hemostasis
release of biochemicals from broken blood vessels or damaged tissues triggers extrinsic clotting mechanism
blood contact with foreign surfaces in the absence of tissue damage stimulates the intrinsic clotting mechanism
abnormally activated coagulation associated with bacterial infection or toxins in the blood is called disseminated intravascular clotting
a self-initiating action in which the original action stimulates more of the same type of action and can operate only for a short perios of time is called positive feedback
when a blood clot forms in a vessel that supplies a magor organ and blocks blood flow and kills tissues the vessels serves, this is called an infarction
the most common cause of thrombosis in medium-size arteries, causing abnormal clot formations, as well as fatty deposit accumulations is called atherosclerosis
when prolonged immobility causes blood to pool, leading to clot formation, especially in the popliteal veins or in the deep veins of the pelvis, this is called deep vein thrombosis
the following is based on the presence or absence of 2 major antigens on red blood cell membranes (antigen A or antigen B) ABO blood group
if a pregnant woman is rh-negative and is pregnant with her second child, who is rh-positive, without shots of rhogam, the anti-rh antibodies can cross the placenta and destroy fetal red blood cells, resulting in a condition called erythroblastois fetalis
if a person has type A blood, can they accept blood from another type a donor yes and type o
if a person has type o blood can they receive blood from any type of donor no
if a person has type ab blood, can they receive blood from type a or type b yes and type o
if a person has type b blood, can they receive blood from type o yes
what happens during a mismatched blood transfusion red cells burst releasing hemoglobin. Macrophages eat the hemoglobin, breaking it down into heme and globin. Which is broken down even farther to bilirubin produceing jaundice of the skin . kidneys may fail
Created by: 02bugeyeful