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Language Devel. 3/2

stops/nasal mastered earlier, complete obstruction of air stream, complete production, tactile, p & m
glides w & y, developed early since vowels, known as semi-vowels
fricatives h & f exceptions, v-s-z harder
manner of production 4 yrs mid point, 7 years of age move to affricates, r, clusters
syl. kids make cv, release (pie), arrest (up)
inconsistencies during development medial arrests & phonetic context
medial arrestor consonants cvccvc, last in development, cupcake, explains gradual development
phonetic context cup--->ticket; can't adjust from one position to the next, tongue can move up then down, based off motor control level
misarticulation errors omission, substitution, distortions, additions
omission worst error, leave out sounds, napkin-->nakin, some h-w-y common to omit, seen in first word
substitution wrong manner, wrong place, manner & place
wrong manner most advanced error, t/s (error/target)
wrong place best kind of error,can still understand kid, close to right target, least negative
manner & place t/f, move place and manner
voicing rarely wrong, added to releasing consonants, taken away from arrestor consonants, don't see after young age
sign error g/s, velor/alveolar
distortions most advanced, not standard production of sound, close but not target, soup->scheloup, messy, hard to fix,usually can understand
addition keeps target, add additional sound, please->puhlease, easier to produce, not expected in typical development
intelligibility how well listener understands what speaker says, speaker must relate with listener, predictive course, mastered around 4 yrs