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Psych 509 ch 5


response to stressors influenced by: the way we judge both the events and our capacity to react to them in an effective way
2 main stress disorders actue stress disorder and PTSD; also psychophysiological diorders affecting medical coniditons
part of brain that sets features of arousal and fear in motion hypthalamus; triggers the auonomic nervous system and endocrine system
autonomic nervous system extensive ntwork of nerve fibers that connect the central nercous system (brain and spinal chord) - control INVOLUNTARY activities of organs - breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure
endocrine system network of glands located thruout body that release hormones into bloodstream
sympathetic nervous system autonomic nercous system fibers that work to quicken heartbeat and produce other changes w/ fear and anxiety ***read pg 135
parasympathetic nervous system when perceived danger passes, helps return heartrate and body to normal
hpyothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway pathway by which arousal and fear reactions are produced; when stressed, hypothalamus signals pituitary gland to secrete ACTH (stress hormone) ***p. 136
trait anxiety general level of arousal and anxiety that each of us brings to the events in our lives
variations in situation for stress disorders situation/state anxiety
% of all cases of acute stress disorder that develop in to PTSD 80%
main symptoms of acute stress disorder and PTSD -reexperieneing the traumatic event - avoidance (situations and acitivites that remind them of event) - reduced responsiveness (some dissocation/psychological separation) - increased arousal, anxiety and guilt
% of people who experience stress disorders in any given year 3.5%
% of lifetime stress disorder 7-9%
% who seek treatment at somet point 2/3rds although few do so when first develop disorder
women : men stress disorders 2 to 1
% of women who experience trauma that develop stress disorder 20%
% of men who experience trauma that develops stress disorder 8%
% of vietnam vets that experienced stress disorder 29%
% of vietnam vets who experienced at least some stress symptoms 22%
% of iraq soldiers w/ ptsd 20%
% more likely to experience ptsd with more than one deployment 50%
ptsd: 10 to 1 ratio natural disasters to combat
% of traffic accident victims with PTSD 40%
% of people who get PTSD from physical/sexual assault; % exposed directly to torture or terrorism 1/3; 50%
% of women raped during her life 1/6 (70% by relative or acquiantance)
rape distress cycle: enormous stress after rape; continues to rise for next 3 weeks; maintins peak level for month then starts to improve. Up to 94% qualify for stress disorder around 12 days after assault
stress disoders: biological/physicological changes PTSD people have abnormal activity of hormone cortisol and neurotransmitter/hormone norepinephrine in urine, blool, saliva; one have PTSD, further biochemical arousal may eventually damage brain areas (hippocampus and amygdala)
which ethnic group has experienced higher PTSD from iraq? hispanic americans
% of PTSD in racial groups after 9/11 hispanics: 14% (may view traumatic events as inevitable and unalterable - may heighten blacks: 9% whites: 7%
% of cases that improve w/in 6 months 50%
% of people who may fail to respond to treatment even after many years 1/3
treatments for PTSD drug therapy (anti-anxiety drugs), behavioral exposure techniques (single most helpful), insight therapy, family therapy, group therapy, flooding
form of exposure therapy used with flooding eye movement desensitization and processing - clients eyes move inrhythmic manner while flooding minds with images of objects and situations they orindarily avoid
cognitive PTSD treatment guide veterans to examine and change dysfunctional attitued and styles of interpretation that emerge as result of their experiences
group therapy where veterans meet with others to share experiences, feelings, give support rap group
crisis intervention that has victims talk about trauma extensively and their feeings within days of incident psychological debriefing or critical incident stress debriefing (not effective, higher rates of PTSD)
class of physical illnesses that seem to result from interaction of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors psychophysiological or psychosomatic disorders -- bring about actual physical damage
traditional psychophysiological disorders ulcers (20 million ppl in US), asthama (70% caused by combo of psychosocial factors like environmental pressures/anxiety and phys like allergies , insomnia, chronic headaches (tension headaches and migrane headaches), hypertension (chronic high BP); corHD
leading cause of death in US conornary heart disease
believed cause of psychosocial disorders defects in the autonomic nervous system - nerves to organs system
psychophysiological disorders: causes -- -men with repressive coping style experience sharp rise in blood pressure and HR when stressed -type A personality (in study, 2x as many type As got heart disease as type B men)
relationship between poor people with high stressors and: poor medical care = psychophysiologcial issues
worst access to healthcare in US hispanic women (1/2 poor hispanic women have no healthcare)
area of study that ties stress and illness to immune system psychoimmunology
LCU scale life changing units. used to look at relationship between life stress and onset of illness. LCU higher before sickness, If person has life changes over 300 LCU likely to deveop serious health problem (shortcoming= racial/ethnic issues)
study of how stressful events result in viral or bacterial infection psychoneuroimmunology
bodys network of activities and cells that identify and destroy antigens immune system
foregn invaders like bacteria, viruses antigens
white blood cells that circulate thru lymph system and bloodstream and help body overcome antigens lymphocytes
produce antibodies B cells
effect of stress on immune system stress interferes with lymphocytes activity- slows down and increases suceptibility. Study: lymphocytes lower in bereaved people than controls
neurotransmitter that contributes to slowdown of immune system norepinephrine - inhibitory message to stop activity of lymphocytes (corticosteroids also contribute)
cytokines proteins that bind to receptors through body, as stress increases, growing production of cytokines can cause chronic infalmmation contributes to heart disease, etc
field of treatment that combines psychological and physical approaches to treat or prevent medical rpboelms behavioral medicine
psychological treatments for physical disorders relaxation training, biofeedback, meditation, hypnosis, congitive interventions
physical issues- help of hypnosis esp for control of pain
cognitive interventions for physical issues teach new attitudes or cognitive responses to ailments ex: i cant take this pain >> when pain comes, just pause and keep focusing on what have to do
Created by: lwstewart