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PSY 1003 C6

QuestionAnswer
Acquisition The formation of a new conditioned response tendency.
Avoidance learning Learning that has occurred when an organism engages in a response that prevents aversive stimulation from occurring.
Behavior modification A systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning.
Behavioral contract A written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the contingencies of a behavior modification program.
Classical conditioning A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
Conditioned reinforcers Stimulus events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers. See Secondary reinforcers.
Conditioned response (CR) A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning.
Conditioned stimulus (CS) A previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.
Continuous reinforcement Reinforcing every instance of a designated response.
Cumulative recorder A graphic record of reinforcement and responding in a Skinner box as a function of time.
Discriminative stimuli Cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response.
Elicit To draw out or bring forth.
Escape learning A type of learning in which an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation.
Evaluative conditioning Efforts to transfer the emotion attached to a UCS to a new CS.
Extinction The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency.
Fixed interval (FI) schedule A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed.
Fixed ratio (FR) schedule A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses.
Higher order conditioning A type of conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus.
Intermittent reinforcement A reinforcement schedule in which a designated response is reinforced only some of the time.
Latent learning Learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs.
Learning A relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience.
Negative reinforcement The strengthening of a response because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus.
Observational learning A type of learning that occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models.
Operant conditioning A form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences. Deals with the modification of 'voluntary behavior'.
Pavlovian conditioning A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. See Classical conditioning.
Positive reinforcement Reinforcement that occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus.
Preparedness Species specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways and not others.
Primary reinforcers Events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs.
Punishment An event that follows a response that weakens or suppresses the tendency to make that response.
Reinforcement An event following a response that strengthens the tendency to make that response.
Reinforcement contingencies The circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers.
Renewal effect Referring to the phenomenon that occurs if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired; the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place.
Resistance to extinction In operant conditioning, the phenomenon that occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it has been terminated.
Schedule of reinforcement A specific presentation of reinforcers over time.
Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers Stimulus events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers.
Shaping The reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response.
Skinner box A small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled.
Spontaneous recovery In classical conditioning, the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus.
Stimulus discrimination The phenomenon that occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
Stimulus generalization The phenomenon that occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
Trial In classical conditioning, any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli.
Unconditioned response (UCR) An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning.
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.
Variable interval (VI) schedule A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed.
Variable ratio (VR) schedule A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses.
Ethnology The study of animals' behavior while in their natural habitat.
Fixed Action Pattern An instinctive behavioral sequence that is indivisible and runs to completion.
Conditioned Fear Fear, Being scared.
Tolman Psychologist who put rats and mice in mazes and found that even though mice may not have a rewards while walking the maze, they still are learning it (Latent learning)
Rescorla Scientist who found a relation between signals when he found that a predictive value of a CS is an influential factor governing classical conditioning.
BF Skinner Operant Conditioning guy. Made 'skinner boxes' and put mice in them and had the mice press buttons.
Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioner, did the thing with the dogs salivating.
Thorndike Observed cats trying to make their way out of homemade puzzle boxes. This is an example of Operant Conditioning. Humans use operant conditioning on themselves when they diet or quit habits.
Watson Founder of behaviorism, got 'little albert' to be afraid of white fuzzy things such as mice.
Premack Principle "After you do this, you can have fun"
The Law of Effect Thorndike, found The Law of Effect, which states that responses followed by positive outcomes are repeated, whereas those followed by negative outcomes are not.
Bandura Bandura was a supporter of observational learning who found 4 key processes that are crucial in observational learning. Attention --> Retention --> Reproduction --> Motivation.
Created by: nitrohippo on 2011-03-03



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