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Amanda AS Vocabulary

Animal Science Vocabulary

Nutrition the study of the food needs of the body.
Vitamins help release energy from carbohydrates, protein and fat.
Minerals members of this nutrient class are essential for life-sustaining metabolic processes.
Nutrient any food component the body requires to support life; includes water, carbohydrates, protein, fat, minerals and vitamins.
Malnutrition abnormal nutrition; caused by a diet that contains too much or too little of one or more essential nutrients.
Mouth tongue for swallowing food for tearing and grinding.
Esophagus transports food from mouth to stomach.
Stomach provides food storage, moves food to small intestine.
Small Intestine absorbs nutrients, mixes ingested food with bile.
Large Intestine absorbs water and electrolytes, recycling them for use in the body.
Rectum external opening at the end of the digestive tract, sphincter muscles control defecation.
Salivary Glands secrete saliva moistens and lubricates food.
Liver produces bile to help digest fat, stores glucose to glycogen.
Pancreas releases sodium bicarbonate into the small intestine to neutralize the acidity of stomach contents entering the small intestine. Also produces insulin and glucagon to help control glucose metabolism.
Diet the daily supply of food and water.
Ingredient an edible material that provides nutrients and energy.
Energy ability to do work; all body activities require energy and all needs are met by consuming food, which contains energy in chemical form; energy content of food is expressed as kilocalories (kcal)
Metabolism all of the complex, interrelated chemical and physical processes that make life possible.
Digestibility proportion of nutrients in food available for absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.
Bioavailability amount of a nutrient absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in a form the body can use.
As- Fed Basis concentration of nutrients in food in the form consumed by the animal; includes moisture content of the food.
Dry Matter Basis method of expressing a food's nutrient content on a moisture-free basis.
Energy Basis concentration of a nutrient in food expressed per unit of energy.
Metabolizable Energy amount of energy in a food available for the body's use.
Kilocalorie 1,000 Calories.
Water the most critical nutrient required by dogs and cats for survival.
Solvent liquid in which another substance is dissolved to form a solution.
Hydrolysis process by which complex materials are broken down into simpler ones by adding water.
Maintenance the amount and quality of the diet required to maintain an adult animal without providing additional nutrients for production, reproduction or weight gain.
Metabolic Water water in the body that is produced during metabolism of nutrients.
Calorie amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5° Celsius (C) to 15.5° C.
Nutrient-to-energy ratio ratio of a food's nutrient content to its energy content.
Body Condition Score determination of an animal's relative proportion of muscle to fat using visual assessment and palpation.
Lean Body Mass fat-free mass of the body.
Energy Density number of calories provided by a given weight or volume of pet food.
Carbohydrates provide cats and dogs with a readily available source of energy, plus fiber for GI.
Simple Carbohydrates include simple sugars such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and lactose, easily digested and used for energy.
Polysaccharides complex carbohydrates that yield simple sugars when digested.
Complex Carbohydrates long chains of simple sugars, can be divided into non-fiber complex carbohydrates and fiber.
Glycogen main storage form of carbohydrates in animals, primarily in the liver and muscle tissue.
Monosaccharides simple sugars; carbohydrates that cannot be broken down into simpler compounds by the addition of water; e.g., glucose, fructose and galactose.
Disaccharides sugars composed of two simple saccharide units; e.g., sucrose (table sugar) = glucose + fructose.
Non-Fiber Complex Carbohydrates often starches, commonly found in plants. Examples are corn and rice.
Fiber complex carbohydrates that resist digestion in the small intestine.
Soluble Fiber the component of dietary fiber that diffuses in water to form a viscous solution or gel in the GI tract.
Short- Chain Fatty Acids fatty acids containing two to six carbon atoms that are produced by microbial metabolism in the large intestine.
Inulin starch found in the roots of certain plants that yields fructose when metabolized.
Pectin Soluble fiber obtained from ripe fruit; used in pet foods as a source of fiber.
Insoluble Fiber can't be digested by dogs or cats and doesn't dissolve in water and passes intact through the GI tract.
Guar Gum source of soluble fiber from seeds of the guar plant; used as a thickener and stabilizer in foods and pharmaceuticals.
Cellulose long-chain polysaccharide that is a component of dietary fiber; forms the skeleton of most plant structures and plant cells.
Adsorbs attracts and retains material (such as water) on its surface.
Satiety condition of feeling full to the point of satisfaction and unable to ingest more food.
Digestion act or process of converting food into chemical compounds that can be absorbed into the bloodstream and used by body tissues.
Enzymes any protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body by acting as a catalyst.
Nonessential Amino Acids amino acids synthesized in the body in sufficient amounts so that they do not need to be obtained from food.
Glycoproteins proteins joined to carbohydrates; function as cell membrane-bound enzymes and receptors.
Glycolipids lipids that contain carbohydrate groups such as galactose and glucose.
Lactase enzyme in the intestinal mucosa that splits lactose into glucose and galactose.
Essential Dietary Nutrients nutrients that the body cannot synthesize at a sufficient rate to meet body needs and must be supplied by the diet.
Metabolically Essential required by the body for normal function.
Gluconeogenesis production of glucose from amino acids and glycerol; occurs in the liver.
Amino Acids the basic building blocks of protein.
Glycerol main component of triglycerides.
AAFCO Association of American Feed Control Officials; an association of state and federal officials that defines food and feed ingredients used in commercial animal feeds and pet foods.
Crude Fiber aboratory estimate of the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content of a food ingredient or feed.
Dipeptides compounds consisting of two amino acids connected by a peptide bond.
Tripeptides compounds containing three amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
Enterocytes primary cells of the small intestinal mucosa responsible for final digestion and absorption of nutrients, electrolytes and water.
Urea one of the final products of protein metabolism.
Antibodies proteins produced by transformed B lymphocytes (plasma cells) in response to the presence of an antigen.
Catalyze to modify, especially to increase, the rate of a chemical reaction.
Pathogens disease-causing agents such as bacteria, viruses or fungi.
Catabolism any destructive process by which cells convert complex substances.
Anabolism the constructive phase of metabolism during which the body creates tissues from basic building blocks.
Moiety an equal part; a half; any part or portion of a molecule.
Encephalopathy any degenerative disease of the brain.
Lipids compounds, including fats, oils, waxes, sterols and triglycerides, that are insoluble in water; important structural components of cell membranes.
Fatty Acids Organic compounds consisting of a carbon and hydrogen chain with a carboxyl group (–COOH) on one end and a methyl group (–CH3) on the other end; naturally occurring component of all fats.
Triglycerides compounds consisting of three fatty acids bound to glycerol.
Cholesterol complex organic molecule (steroid alcohol) found in animal fats and oils, bile, blood, brain tissue, milk, egg yolk, myelin sheaths of nerve fibers, liver, kidneys and adrenal glands.
Fat-soluble vitamins vitamins that are soluble in and absorbed from the intestine in fat; includes vitamins A, D, E and K.
Lymphatic System series of vessels or ducts that carries excess tissue fluid (lymph) to blood vessels near the heart, where the fluid is put back into the bloodstream.
Myelin Sheath Schwann cells wrapped around an axon of a nerve cell that serve as insulation.
Prostaglandins hormone-like substances, derived from fatty acids via the cyclooxygenase pathways, that mediate many different physiologic functions, including inflammation, metabolism and smooth muscle activity.
Leukotrienes substances formed from arachidonic acid that participate in inflammation.
Bile Acids molecules secreted by the liver into the small intestine where they combine with fats and fatty acids to make the fats more water-soluble and activate fat-digesting enzymes (lipases).
Enterocytes primary cells of the small intestinal mucosa responsible for final digestion and absorption of nutrients, electrolytes and water.
Colonocytes epithelial cells lining the large intestine (colon).
Phospholipids triglycerides in which phosphorus replaces one fatty acid; major lipids in cell membranes.
Palatability the degree readiness of food.
Essential Fatty Acids fatty acids that cannot be made by the body and must be supplied by the diet.
Adipose fat.
Pruritic extremely itchy.
Epidermal referring to the outermost layer of skin.
Pyoderma any pus-producing skin condition.
Inorganic referring to compounds that do not contain hydrogen and carbon
Enzyme any protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body by acting as a catalyst.
Incombustible incapable of being burned.
Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease a group of diseases that involves irritation of the lower urinary tract
Potassium transmits nerve impulses, found in fluid in body cells.
Acid-base balance a state of equilibrium between the acidity and alkalinity of fluids
Electrolytes chemical substances capable of conducting electric current when dissolved in water or melted (e.g., sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, bicarbonate).
Osmotic relating to diffusion of fluid through a semipermeable membrane until an equal concentration of fluid is reached on both sides of the membrane.
Cofactor an element, such as a coenzyme, that partners with another element to carry out a chemical reaction.
Water-soluble vitamins vitamins that are soluble in water; includes B-complex vitamins and vitamin C; they are excreted in urine and not stored in the body in appreciable amounts.
Thermoregulation physiological process controlling the balance between heat production and heat loss in the body to maintain body temperature
Basal Metabolic rate rate of energy consumed by the body when it is completely at rest.
Iodine iodine deficiency is uncommon in dogs and cats.
Organic generally refers to substances produced by metabolism of a living organism, especially carbon-containing compounds
Coenzymes organic molecules, often derived from vitamins (e.g., riboflavin [B2], niacin [B3], pantothenic acid [B5], pyridoxine [B6]) that are required by an enzyme to carry out a metabolic reaction
Transduction conversion of a stimulus, whether mechanical, chemical or thermal, into an electrical impulse
Free Radical naturally occurring molecule in the body as a result of metabolic processes
Vitamin A important function in vision, normal bone growth, tooth development, reproduction
Vitamin D considered a vitamin and hormone and helps absorb calcium.
Vitamin E protects polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Vitamin K cats and dogs need this and has a role in enabling synthesis of blood clotting proteins.
Created by: amandaruppert