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Colin AS Vocab

All Animal Science Vocabulary

Nutrition The study of the food needs of the body
Adipose stored fat tissue
Beef Tallow Solid Fat made by rendering fat from cattle
Palatability Degree of readiness for an animal to consume
Nutrient ny food component the body requires to support life; includes water, carbohydrates, protein, fat, minerals and vitamins
Mouth Teeth grasp, tear and grind food into small pieces; and tongue positions food for swallowing
Esophagus Transport food from the mouth to the stomach
Viscera All of the stomach organs
Stomach Provides food storage, moves food into the small intestine, contains hydrochloric acid
Small Intestine Mixes ingested food with bile and digestive enzymes, Absorbs nutrients
Large Intestine Site of the Microbial Fermentation, absorbs water and electrolytes, moves waste into the rectum and anus
Microbial Fermentation Anaerobic enzymatic conversion of some carbohydrates to simpler compounds by microorganisms in the large intestine of cats and dogs
Salivary Glands Secrete saliva to moisten and lubricating food, plays role in evaporating cooling in dogs and cats
Liver Produces bile, stores as glucose as glycogen
Pancreas Produces insulin and glucagon, secretes enzymes in to the small intestine
Ingredient Edible material that may provide nutrients and energy as part of a food
Intestinal Mucosa Mucous membrane lining the intestine
Energy density Number of calories provided by a given weight or volume of pet food, expressed as kilo-calories
Bioavailable The ability of a nutrient, drug or other substance to be absorbed used by the body
Availability The proportion of a specific nutrient in food that is available for absorption by the body
AAFCO Association of American Feed Control Officials
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
FDA Food and Drug Administration
Additives Substances added to food, including preservatives, coloring, and flavoring
Amino Acids Building blocks of protein
Preservatives Substances added to food to destroy or inhibit microbial growth and slow decay, discoloring, or spoilage under normal conditions
Rancidity Decomposition of fats and oils that produces off odors and flavors, and destroys fat soluble vitamins
Diet daily supply of food and water to meet an animal's nutrient and energy requirements
Meat and Bone Meal Rendered product from mammalian tissues
Rendered Process using low heat to separate fat from bone and protein
Animal Digest A material produced by chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis of clean undecomposed animal tissue
Hydrolysis Process by which complex materials are broken down into simpler ones by adding water
Meat by Product non-rendered clean parts other than meat, derived from slaughtered mammals
Non-rendered pet food ingredients that have not been processed or separated into fat
Essential Fatty Acids Fatty acids that cannot be made by the body and must be supplied by the diet
Essential Amino acids EAA, Amino Acids that can not be produced in sufficient quantity in the body and must be obtained from food
Fiber Portion of ingested foods that resist digestion in the GI tract
GI tract Gastrointestinal Tract
Calories amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1gram of water from 14.5 Celsius
The Six Nutrients Vitamins, Minerals, Fats, Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Water
Vitamins Vitamins help release energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
Minerals Members of this nutrient class are essential for life-sustaining metabolic processes
Fats Dietary fat is a concentrated energy source, a carrier for fat soluble vitamins, and plays many roles in the body
Proteins An Essential dietary nutrient, supplies cats and dogs with amino acids for a wide range of body functions
Carbohydrates Provide cats and dogs with a readily available source of energy, Starches, sugars
Water Most Crucial nutrient of the body, loss of 10% equals death
Metabolism the process by which large molecules are broken into smaller molecules to make energy available to the organism
Dry-Matter basis method of expressing a food's nutrient content on a moisture-free basis
As-Fed or As-Is Basis concentration of nutrients in food in the form consumed by the animal; includes moisture content of the food
Gross Energy otal amount of potential energy in food; not completely used by an animal because some energy losses occur during digestion and are expelled in urine and feces
BCS (Body Condition Score) determination of an animal's relative proportion of muscle to fat using visual assessment and palpation
Lean Body Mass at-free mass of the body; that part of the body including all its components except fat (stored lipids)
Complex Carbohydrates Called polysaccharides, are long chains of simple sugar
Polysaccharides complex carbohydrates that yield simple sugars when digested
Simple Carbohydrates Include Simple sugars (Mono saccharides, sugars are easily digested for energy
Enzymes any protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body by acting as a catalyst
Nonessential Amino Acids amino acids synthesized in the body in sufficient amounts so that they do not need to be obtained from food
Crude Fiber Laboratory estimate of the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin co ntent of a food ingredient or feed
Villi Finger-like projections on the surface of the small intestine that increase the surface area available for absorption of fluids and nutrients
The EAAs for Dogs Arginine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine
The EAAs for Cats Arginine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Taurine Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine
The NAAs for Dogs and Cats Alanine, Asparagine, Aspartate, Glutamate, Glycine, Proline, Serine
The EAAs for Both Dogs and Cats Cysteine, Glutamine, Taurine, Tyrosine
Catalyze to modify, especially to increase, the rate of a chemical reaction
Created by: weissmancp2