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WoM Test 1

Bonnie Wade's "Thinking Musically"

What is a soundscape? The totality of sound in any environment
Who coined the term "soundscape?" R. Murray Schafer
Keynote sounds continuing “tonic” sounds, constant recurring pitches
Sound signals foreground sounds, warnings, etc.
Soundmarks similar to landmarks, sounds unique to an area
What is the fundamental message of Wade's book? People make music meaningful and useful in their lives
What is enthomusicology? The study of music in the context of human life
Who says that music is a process or activity? Christopher Small
What does the term "musicking" mean? Taking part, in any capacity, in a musical performance, whether by performing, by listening, by rehearsing or practicing, or providing material for performance, or by dancing
What term is used to refer to our musical preferences: "the kinds of sounds, images, and subjects we prefer to encounter" in music? Aesthetics or aesthetic values
What are the four ways musical knowledge can be transmitted? Tactile Oral and Aural Visual Electronic Media
Can music alone be clearly be for or against something such as government. Yes, because of its associations.
According to Wade, "The countless and varied musical instruments that have existed through time" are evidence of what? How people make music meaningful and useful in their lives
What system do scholars use today to classify instruments? The Sachs-Hornbostel Classifications System
How are instruments in the Sachs-Hornbostel Classification system classified? By their primary sound producing medium.
What are the four primary classifications of the SHC system? Idiophones Membranophones Chordophones Aerophones
What are some of the extramusical ideas associated with various instruments? Sexuality and gender Spiritual things Cultural status Aesthetic value (looks) Technology The instrument as a commodity Timbre and musical aesthetics
What is a homogeneous sound ideal? The love of a timbral blend, a preference for all instruments or voices in a performing group to sound alike or similar
What is a heterogeneous sound ideal? The love of timbral variety, a preference for all instruments or voices in a performing group to sound different or dissimilar
What does the term "culture" mean, as used by American anthropologists? The whole way of life of a people - the sum total of ways of living built by a group of human beings and transmitted from generation to another.
What is enculturation? The process by which a culture teaches an individual the accept norms and values of the culture of society in which the individual lives.
What is acculuration? The exchange of cultural features that results when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original patterns of either or both groups.
What is assimilation? The process by which a minority group gradually adapts to the customs and attitudes of the prevailing culture and customs.
What is a community? A group of people who recognize their collectivity.
What is an imagined community? A group of persons regard as forming a single community
What kind of identities can groups and individuals construct? Personal, gender, familial, friendship group, school, social class, ethnic group, regional national
What is national state? An apparatus for management, a mechanism for the maintenance of an internal community and the conduct of relations with other nations.
What does the term authenticity mean when applied to music? Faithfulness to one's essential nature, often faithfulness to one's specific culture
What does Tim Rice say about authenticity? If authenticity is to retain and meaning at all, it has to mean that music is authentic when it responds in some meaningful way to the culture and society around it, as it virtually and always does.
What is transculturation? The process of a cultural transformation marked by the influx of new culture elements and the loss or alteration of existing ones
How are globalization and transculturation related? Globalization is a result of transculturation.
What does the term "rhythm" refer to? Rhythm in musical sound is created by successions of durations in time, also by the absence of sound
What is a pulse? A regularly recurring duration?
What is meter? A pattern of strong and weak pulses
What is the qualitative aspect of meter? How a meter is articulated or performed.
What is syncopation? Putting an accent in an unexpected place, after a regular pulse or beat has been established.
What is the meter of South Asian (Indian) music called? Tala (line over the a)
In colotomic meter, which pulse is the most important? The last
What is the meter of Korean music called? Changdan
What is polyrhythm? The performance of multiple rhythmic patterns simultaneously.
What is solfége? A generic term that refers to syllables used to name pitches (and percussion strokes in some cultures.)
What musical tradition uses a scale built of quarter tones? Middle Eastern
What is a maqam? A maqam is a scale or mode used in Middle Eastern music
What is a scale? A group of pitches, pitch sets, arranged in ascending or descending order.
What is a mode? A way of thinking about scales that includes both musical practice and extramusical associations
What is raga? (line over first "a") A South Asian (Indian) mode
What is monophony? A musical texture in which music is performed solo or in unison.
Interlocking parts (AKA Hocket) A texture in which melody is created by splitting it up between performing musicians.
Round A musical texture in which the same melody is performed with systematically successive entrances so that the melodies overlap
Heterophony A musical texture in which multiple musicians perform on melody, but each musician might render the melody somewhat differently
Melody and drone A musical texture in which a melody is performed with a sustained pitch or pitches
Homophony A musical texture in which, most commonly, melody is accompanied by functional chords
Polyphony A musical texture in which multiple melodic parts are performed simultaneously.
Melody and ostinato A musical texture in which a melody is performed with a repeating parttern
How does Wade explain the relationship between composing and improvising? They involve the same cognitive processes and are two parts of the same continuum. Composition is done before the performance, whereas improvisation is done during the performance.
How does Wade define "improvisation?" (answer too long, some spaces missing) A compositional process in which a musician exercises relatively great flexibility with given material during a performance. AND A process in which musical materials that is given is interwoven with material that is being newly created even AsOneLis
What material is presented at the beginning of a Hindustani traditional music perfomance? Raga (line over first a), the pitch mode. This demonstrates the primacy of melody in Hindustani music.
What material is often presented at the beginning of a performance of an important composition of Western classical music? The main theme, or motive, that will be the basis of the ensuing movement or composition.
What is modulation? The process of shifting to one tonal center to another?
What are the four formal techniques Wade describes for "telling the story?" The use of pre-composed, pre-learned music available upon demand Contrasting instrumentation used to tell the story and move the drama along Through-composed music Strophic form
What techniques does Wade describe for ending a piece? Accelerating or decelerating tempo Returning to a tonal center Insertion of a unique rhythmic pattern or metric pattern Some combination of one of more of the above
Created by: Rayechalar