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Ch. 5-1

Pages 157-164

DARWIN'S OBSERVATIONS Surprised by the variety of living things he saw on voyage
Observations Observed lots of diversity of organisms on Galapagos Islands
Species A group of similar organisms whose members can mate with one another and produce fertile offspring
SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERNCES -Lots of Galap. organisms were similar to South Am. mainland organisms -Darwin thought Galap. animals and plants came from South Am. mainland
Similarities Dar. noticed many differences w/ similar organisms as he traveled from each Galap. island
ADAPTATIONS A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
Finch Beaks Finches that eat: Insects-Small and Needlike beaks to dig out insects Seeds-Wide and Strong beaks to break the seeds
EVOLUTION The gradual change in a species over time
Scientific Theory A well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
Galapagos Evolution -Darwin thought Galap. organisms gradually changed over many gener. -Also believed that evolution occured on Galap. Islands
NATURAL SELECTION The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species
"The Origin of Species" <-- Darwin's book explained that evolution occured because of natural selection
Survival of the Fittest Individuals with variations become better adapted to enviro. will survive
Kinds of Natural Selection OVERPRODUCTION- Species produce more offspring than can survive COMPETITION- Caused by limited food & other resources VARIATIONS- Differences between individuals of the same species
THE ROLES OF GENES IN EVOLUTION Only traits that are controlled by genes can be acted upon by natural selection
Darwin's Knowledge Darwin didn't know alot about genes and mutations
EVOLUTION IN ACTION Evolution by natual selection can occur in as short of a time period as one year
Galapagos Islands Drought of 1977 During drought, only Galap. finches with larger and stronger beaks were able to survive better
HOW DO NEW SPECIES FORM? When a group of individuals remain separated from rest of species long enough to develop new traits
How Can a Group Be Separated From Its Species? -Continental Drift -Get Lost -River, Volcano, Mountain Range (Phys. Feat.) -Ocean Wave
CONTINENTAL DRIFT The very slow motion of the continents. (Pangea gradually split apart)
What Happened to Plant and Animal Species Durign Cont. Drift? Species got separated from each other and evovled separately/independently
Created by: Avery R.