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Embalming Qtr. 2

Final-Includes Guides & Limits

The major pipes of the circulatory system that carry blood away from the heart Arteries
The small branches off the arterioles Capillaries
The large vessels that carry blood back to the heart Veins
The upper chambers of the heart Atria (atrium)
The lower chambers of the heart Ventricles
The center of venous drainage The right atrium
The inner layer of the heart Endocardium
The middle layer of the heart; toughest and thickest in the ventricles Myocardium
The outer layer of the heart Epicardium
The open space in the center of blood vessels Lumen (Lumina)
The inner covering of the vessels nearest the blood Tunica Intima
The middle layer of the blood vessels Tunica Media
The outer layer of the blood vessels Tunica Adventitia
The vessels of the vessels Vasa Vasorum
What structure is the center of fluid distribution? The Aortic Arch
*Base of the triangle: Inguinal Ligament *Medial Border: Abductor Longus *Lateral Border: Sartorius Muscle Scarpa's Triangle "Femoral Triangle"
What do you find in the femoral triangle? NAVE *Femoral Nerve *Femoral Artery *Femoral Vein *Emptying of great saphonous vein
What muscle is behind the NAVE? Pectineus Muscle
Anterior Border: Sartorius Muscle Medial Border: Adductor Longus Posterior Border: Adductor Magnus Lateral Border: Vastus Medialis Hunter's Canal *NAV is in the center
Superior Border: Inferior border of Thyroid Cartilage Medial Border: Trachea Lateral Border: Medial border of SCM Carotid Triangle
What are the criteria for selecting an artery? Accessibility, Proximity to the arch, Size, Effect on posing the body
Any surface, prominence, structure which is used for establishing the location of an adjacent structure or prominence Anatomical Guide
Points of origin & termination of a vessel expressed in relation to adjacent anatomical structures or prominences Anatomical Limits
An imaginary line drawn on the surface of the skin to represent the approx location of a deeper lying structure or prominence Linear Guide
A.G: Lateral border of Trachea & medial border of SCM L.G: Line drawn from sternoclavicular articulation to the earlobe Common Carotid
What is the anatomical limit for the right common carotid? Begins at the point behind the sternoclavicular articulation and extends to the level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage
What is the anatomical limit for the left common carotid? Begins at the level of the 2nd costal cartilage and extends to the superior border of the thyroid cartilage
What is the accompanying vein to the common carotid? Internal Jugular
What are the advantages of the common carotid? *Can inject the face directly, close to the arch *Only artery in the neck **have to be careful not to blow up the face
AG: Just behind medial border of coracobrachialis muscle AL: Lateral border of 1st rib & extends to inferior border of teres major LG: Line drawn through center at base of axillary space & parallel to the long axis of the upper extremity when abducted Axillary Artery *continuation of the subclavian in the armpit area
What are advantages of the axillary? *Close to arch *Less chance of blowing up the face *Good drainage from accompanying vein
What are disadvantages of the axillary? *Lots of branches *Don't want to use with a firming fluid
AG: Posterior to medial border of the biceps brachii AL: Begins where inferior border of the teres major muscle is & extends to point just distal to antecubital fossa LG: Line drawn from center of base of axillary space to the center of forearm Brachial Artery *continuation of axillary artery
What is the accompanying vein for the brachial artery? Basilic Vein
AG: Just lateral to tendon of the flexor carpi radialis AL: extends from a point inferior of the antecubial fossa to the palm of the hand, thumb side LG: Base of antecubial fossa to index finger Radial Artery *lateral branch of the bifurcation of brachial artery **most superficial vessel in wrist
AG: Just lateral to tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris AL: Center of antecubital fossa to the index finger LG: Center of antecubital fossa to the 4th & 5th finger Ulnar Artery *medial branch of the bifurcation of the brachial artery
AL right: Begins where rt common carotid begins & extends to lateral border of 1st rib (comes off the brachiocephalic) AL left: begins at level of 2nd costal cartilage & extends to lateral border of 1st rib Subclavian Artery
What is the vessel that can be used in infants 1 year or less? Abdominal Aorta
*Bifurcation of abdominal aorta AG: Lies along the superior medial border of psoas major Common Iliac
AG: Along inferior medial border of psoas major AL: Begins opposite the sacroiliac synchondrosis & extends to central inguinal ligament LG: line drawn from superior-anterior iliac spine to pubic symphusis External Iliac
AG: Center of scarpas/femoral triangle AL: Begins in center of inguinal ligament & ends at opening of adductor magnus(adductor hiatus) LG: Line that begins at center of inguinal ligament to the center of medial condyle of femur Femoral Artery
AG: Back of the knee AL: Begins where femoral ends at the opening of the adductor magnus & ends at the popliteal muscle LG: Line drawn through the center of popliteal space parallel to the long axis of leg Popliteal Artery *continuation of the femoral
AG: Anterolateral edge of tibia AL: Begins where popliteal leaves off at inferior border of popliteus muscle & ends at the ankle joint LG: Lateral border of the patella to the anterior surface of ankle joint Anterior Tibial Artery *anterior branch of the bifurcation of popliteal artery
AG: Groove behind & below the medial malleolus & achilles tendon AL: Inferior border of popliteus tendon & ends beneath the origin of the abductor hallucis LG: Center of popliteal space & extends to the space btn. the medial malleolus & calcaneal tendo Posterior Tibial Artery *posterior branchof the bifurcation of the popliteal artery
AG: Groove between the tendons of the extensor hallucis longus muscle & extensor digitorum longus muscle LG:Center of the anterior surface of the ankle joint & extends to the space between the big toe & adjacent toe Dorsalis Pedis Artery *continuation of the anterior tibial artery
Blood vessel running collaterally to a more major vessel to another part of the major vessel *helps bypass clots & blockages in arteries Anastomosis
Name the factors you consider when selecting an artery Age, Gender, Weight/Fat Distribution, Disfigurations, Disease, Mutilation, COD, Local Obstruction/Clots
Inject & drain the whole body with one site only 1 Site Injection
Drain from a different location than where you are injecting Split Injection
2 or more complete injection & drainage sites Multi-point (sectional) Injection
Both common carotids are drained from the right internal jugular Restricted Cervical
Both carotids, both axillaries, & both femorals 6 Point Injection
Incision made at a right angle to the axis of the artery Transverse
Incision made parallel to the artery Longitudinal
Arrow-head shaped incision made with scissors Wedge
Incision that combines the transverse & longitudinal *useful for sclerotic arteries T Shaped
Incision that is oblique at a 45* angle; never cut through more than half the vessel Diagonal
How many pounds per foot of pressure does the gravity injector give? What causes the pressure? .43 pounds of pressure per foot of elevation. Gravity causes the pressure.
The force required to distribute embalming fluid throughout the body Pressure
Pressure indicated by the pressure gauge while the machine is running but not injecting Potential Pressure
Pressure indicated by the gauge when the arterial fluid is flowing into the body Actual Pressure
The difference between the potential and actual pressure Differential
Sutures made through subcutaneous tissue only, not the skin; back and forth stitch Single Intradermal/Subcutaneous Suture (Hidden Stitch)
Sutures the same as the single but there are needles on both ends of the ligature; criss-cross stitch like shoelaces Double Intradermal/Subcutaneous Suture
Suture that uses an S needle & the stitch is made from beneath, up through the skin, & crossed side to side Baseball/Sail Stitch
Suture that moves up and over passing the needle underneath the ligature to lock; creates a ridge Lock/Half Stitch
A temporary suture used on exposed areas, to anchor sutures around pins, and to assist in permanent closure by bringing & holding the lips of the incision together when sealer is used Figure Eight
Suture that is the same as the intradermal except it draws through the skin Draw/Worm Stitch
Suture that passes the ligature through both sides of the incision from the outside until closed Whip/Continuous Glover Suture (Roll Stitch)
Each stitch is tied and cut, normally used as a temporary stitch Bridge/Interrupted Suture
Describe characteristics of arteries *Have no blood *Don't have valves *Usually deep in the tissue for protection *Cream colored with red hair-like vessels *Feel like thick rubber bands *Will stand open when cut
Describe characteristics of veins *Engorged with blood *Have valves *More superficial than arteries *Blue/Bluish-Gray *Thinner vessel than arteries *Collapse when cut
What are intravascular factors that influence fluid resistance/injection pressure? *Size of Vessels *Condition of Vessels *Local Congestion
What are extravascular factors that influence fluid resistance/injection pressure? *Weight of Viscera *Gas Collection in Viscera *Tumors *Ascites *Contact Pressure *COD *Post-mortem Interval
Drainage that helps build pressure in the body to help push clots through Restricted Drainage
Amount/volume of embalming solution injected over a period of time Rate of Flow
The dilution of the concentrated arterial with water to form the arterial solution that is injected into the body; fully controlled by the embalmer Primary Dilution
Formalin is how much formaldehyde by weight & how much by volume? 37% by weight 40% by volume
The amount of formaldehyde gas measured in grams dissolved into 100 ml of water Index
The dilution of the already diluted fluid by fluids of the body; not under control of the embalmer Secondary Dilution
Secondary dilution can be increased or decreased how? Can be increased by edema, has a higher preservative demand. Can be decreased by a dehydrated body.
The movement of embalming solution from the point of injection throughout the arterial, capillary, & venous portions of the blood vascular system Fluid Distribution
Fluid passage through the capillary walls because of positive intravascular pressure Pressure Filtration
Movement of solvent from dilute to concentrated solution Osmosis
The separation of differing substances in solution because of their differing diffusability through semi-permeable membranes Dialysis
The extravascular pull of fluid by gravitational force Gravity Filtration
How many gallons of fluid do you inject for every 50 lbs of body weight? 1 gallon per 50 lbs
What are the signs of fluid distribution? Distention of superficial vessels, Blood drainage, Reduction of lividity, Change in skin color, Mottling, Re-hydration, Desirable distention, Tissue fixation
Which is the least reliable sign of fluid distribution? Tissue Fixation
Chemicals that inactivate saprophytic bacteria, render unsuitable for nutrition the media upon which such bacteria thrive, will arrest decomp by altering enzymes & lysins of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissues into a form much.... less susceptible to decomp = Preservative
Name the different types of preservative that can be in in arterial Aldehydes, Alcohols, Phenol & Phenolic Compounds, Inorganic Salts
Formaldehyde & Gluteraldehyde Aldehydes
Methyl, Isopropyl, & Ethyl Alcohols
Sodium Chloride, Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sulfate, Potassium Nitrate, Metallic Salts Inorganic Salts
Formaldehyde, Gluteraldehyde, Phenol, QUATS (Zephiran Chloride & Roccal) Germicides
Chemicals which kill or render incapable of reproduction the disease causing organisms Germicide
Chemicals that retard the tendency of blood to become more viscous by natural PM processes or they prevent adverse reactions btn. blood & embalming chemicals Anti-coagulants
Sodium Citrate, Sodium Oxylate, Calcium Oxylate TDA (Tetrasodium Diacetic Acid) EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Tetracetic Acid) Anti-coagulants
Liquids which serve as the solvent for all the ingredients incorporated into embalming fluid ex: Water, Alcohol Vehicle
Chemicals which reduce the molecular cohesion of a liquid & thereby enable it to flow through smaller apertures Surfactants aka: Wetting Agents, Surface Tension Reducers, Penetrating Agents, Surface Active Agents
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Sulfonates Surfactants
Substances which will upon being dissolved impart a definite color to the solvent Dyes aka: Coloring Agent
Eosine, Carmine, Ponceau Red, Erythrosine Dyes
Chemicals having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant one Re-odorants/Deodorants
Methyl Salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen), Oil of Cloves, Lemon Oil, Cherry Oil, Oil of Sassafras, Benzaldehyde Re-odorants/Deodorants
Chemicals that are used to supplement, balance, control, or complement the action of the arterial fluids Modifying Agents (Modifiers)
Chemicals which create an increased capability for embalmed tissues to retain their moisture Humectants
Glycerol, Sorbitol, Hexylene Glycol, Lanolin & other Oils, Aloe Humectants
Chemicals which affect or bring about a stabilization of the acid/base balance within embalming solutions or in embalmed tissues Buffers (Buffering Agents)
Borax/Boric Acid, Sodium Bicarbonate, Disodium Phosphate, Sodium Citrate, EDTA Buffers
Chemicals used to change hard water to soft water Water Conditioning Agents aka: Water Conditioners/Softeners
Sodium Citrate, Sodium Oxylate, EDTA Water Conditioning Agents
What are found in jaundice fluids? *Low Index *Reducing Agents *Bleaching Agents *Counter-staining Dyes *Vehicle= Water
Fluids designed to be injected into aspirated viscera Cavity Fluids
How are cavity fluids used? Directly from the bottle, not diluted. Can be used in a pack or hypodermic injection.
How many ounces of cavity fluid is to be used? 32 oz total *16 in thoracic cavity *16 in abdominal cavity
What preservatives are found in cavity fluids? Formaldehyde, Gluteraldehyde, Phenol, Alcohols, Inorganic Salts
What germicides are found in cavity fluids? QUATS, Phenol, Gluteraldehyde
What re-odorants are found in cavity fluid? Benzaldehyde, Lemon Oil, Wintergreen Oil
Fluids used/injected before the arterial Pre-injection Fluids
Fluids added to the arterial Co-injection Fluids
Contain powdered germicides, drying agents, and powdered preservatives *help preserve viscera in autopsy cases Hardening Compounds
What are the hardening agents found in hardening compounds? Plaster of Paris, Ammonium Chloride
What are the disinfectants found in hardening compounds? Paraformaldehyde, Ammonium Chloride (Alum)
What are the moisture absorbers found in hardening compounds? Saw Dust, Clays, Powdered Chalk
What are the fillers found in hardening compounds? Perlite, Cellulose
Fungicides & bactericides that are used in bodies that will be entombed Mold Preventative Agents
What are the chemicals used as mold preventative agents? Paraformaldehyde, Paradichlorobenzene *mostly made up of paraformaldehyde
Compounds that help prevent leakage, make a chemical barrier Sealing Compounds aka: Sealing Agents, Sealers, Cauterizing Agents
Used for topical embalming Pack Applications
Total amount of preservative with which protein will combine to be completely preserved Fluid Demand
What are the factors that affect the shelf life of formaldehyde? *Temperature: avoid extremes *Time: no more than 2-4 years *pH: buffers help keep neutral *Light: bright, direct light= no no
Created by: sbarton