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consciousness The subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment.
biological rhythms Regularly occurring cycles of behaviors caused by biological factors.
circadian rhythm The biological cycle that guides the daily waking and sleeping in many animals.
rapid eye movement (REM) sleep A sleep stage characterized by the presence of fast eye movements and dreaming.
non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep A deep sleep, characterized by very slow brain waves, which is further subdivided into three substages, labeled as stages N1, N2, and N3.
insomnia A sleep disorder that involves persistent difficulty falling or staying asleep.
sleep apnea A sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing that last at least 10 seconds during sleep.
narcolepsy A disorder characterized by extreme daytime sleepiness with frequent episodes of “nodding off.”
dreams The succession of images, thoughts, sounds, and emotions that passes through our minds while sleeping.
psychoactive drug A chemical that changes our states of consciousness, and particularly our perceptions and moods.
tolerance An increase in the dose of a drug required to produce the same effect.
dependence The need to use a drug or other substance regularly.
withdrawal Negative experiences that accompany reducing or stopping drug use, including physical pain and other symptoms.
addiction When the user powerfully craves the drug and is driven to seek it out, over and over again, no matter what the physical, social, financial, and legal cost.
stimulant A class of psychoactive drugs that operate by blocking the reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the synapses of the central nervous system.
caffeine A bitter psychoactive drug found in the beans, leaves, and fruits of plants.
nicotine A psychoactive drug found in tobacco products.
cocaine An addictive drug obtained from the leaves of the coca plant.
amphetamine A stimulant that produces increased wakefulness and focus, along with decreased fatigue and appetite.
depressant A class of psychoactive drugs that reduce the activity of the CNS.
alcohol A colorless liquid, produced by the fermentation of sugar or starch, that is the intoxicating agent in fermented drinks.
barbiturates A family of depressants that are commonly prescribed as sleeping pills and painkillers.
benzodiazepines A family of depressants used to treat anxiety, insomnia, seizures, and muscle spasms.
opioids A family of chemicals that increase activity in opioid receptor neurons in the brain and in the digestive system, producing euphoria, analgesia, slower breathing, and constipation.
opium The dried juice of the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy.
morphine A powerful and addictive drug derived from opium.
heroin A powerful and addictive drug derived from opium.
codeine A powerful and addictive drug derived from opium.
hallucinogens A family of psychoactive drugs that alter sensation and perception.
hypnosis A trance-like state of consciousness, usually induced by a procedure known as hypnotic induction, which consists of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus.
sensory deprivation Intentional reduction of stimuli affecting one or more of the five senses, with the possibility of resulting changes in consciousness.
meditation To techniques in which the individual focuses on something specific, such as an object, a word, or one’s breathing, with the goal of ignoring external distractions, focusing on one’s internal state, and achieving a state of relaxation and well-being.
Created by: Oleksiy