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World History

Ancient India and Hinduism/ British in India/ South Asia Test

QuestionAnswer
The 6 countries of South Asia India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka
What form of government does India have? democracy
Who were the Aryans? 2000 BCE Indo-Europeans who created a new society in India
Aryans sacred language? Sanskrit
What are the Vedas? Collections of songs, prayers, and hymns honoring the gods (veda=wisdom, knowledge0
What were the tribal chieftains called? Raja- prince and Maharaja- great prince
Why do historians believe the caste system was developed? To maintain power over indigenous people (the Dravidians).
Brahmins Priests and intellectuals
Kshatriyas Nobility and warriors
Vaisyas Farmers, merchants, business people
Sudras Artisans, workers, peasants (people with limited rights)
Dalits (Untouchables) Slave class, outsiders (5% population)
Who are the 3 main gods of Hinduism? Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, Shiva the Destroyer
Samsara Continuous cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.
Karma The sum of good and bad actions a human soul (atman) carries with it from life to life.
Dharma "To hold or support." Relates to sacred duty or moral responsibility.
Yoga Developed as a method of training designed to lead to union with Brahman.
Who is Siddhartha Gautama? What did he do? Buddha; Born 563 BCE, reached enlightenment
What are the 4 Noble Truths? Suffering, Origination of Suffering, Cessation of Suffering, Eightfold path
What is the way to end desire? Follow the eightfold path
What religion was very succesful in India? Buddhism
Between 500-1500 AD what religious group gained control in South Asia (particularly Northern India)? Muslim Sultans (kings)
In what century were the British allowed to enter India as traders? 1600's
Who was the emperor at the time the British were allowed to enter India? Akbar
Who were the Mughals? The Muslim empire in charge of India when the British came in.
Compare Europe to India in the 1600's India had an 85% larger treasury and better goods; Europe was undeveloped
Where did the British East India Company set up trading posts? Bombay, Madras, Calcutta
Why was the setting up of trading posts an advantage to the British EIC later on? They had control posts on all sides of India.
What problems was the Mughal empire having in India? Fighting Hindus and Muslims
Why did the British EIC hire troops? To protect areas producing their goods.
What was the justification behind the British EIC coming to rule territory within India? Skirmishes with local Mughal rulers resulted in the deaths of British people.
How much of India was under control of the British EIC by 1857? 3/5
What did the British EIC increase for Indian farmers? Taxes
Who were the zaminders? What did they do? Tax collectors; they took tax and land
How did money lenders come to own farm land? The lent money to farmers, and when they couldn't pay back in cash, they'd pay land.
How did taxes have to be paid? in cash
Name the cash crops grown and for what purpose. Cotton-textiles, Indigo-dye, Opium-sell to China, Jute-rope
What happened to the forests there? Why? Destroyed due to commercial logging operations.
What happened to the cities in the interior of India? Lessoned in size, influence, population, and wealth
How did the British view Indians? What did they bring to India? Barbaric; law, political system, education, religion
Who paid for their military occupation? How much? Indians; 1/3 total annual revenue
Who were the Sepoys? Native troops
Why did they rebel against the British EIC? Bullets covered with cow and pig fat.
What happened after the rebellion was put down? Great Britain made India a colony
How did the British change the way India was run? Run by British government, new higher taxes
What caused the population boom? Western medication and sanitation
What happened to farm families? They lost their land, and were driven deeper in debt
Give the reasons how colonialism effected modern economic development of India. Grew cash crops only, no food crops; 1/5 farmers owned no land; widespread hunger; not enough jobs; insufficient industry for population made India poorly prepared economically for independence in 1947
Created by: mercyme0011undone on 2006-11-15



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