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Nervous Tissue

Lecture Unit 2

The Nervous System Body's primary communication & control system. Other control system is the Endocrine system.
Structural Organization of the Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain, Spinal cord
Structural Organization of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) (All Nerves) Cranial nerves-12 pairs, Spinal nerves-31 pairs, Ganglia (mass of cell bodies).
Functional Organization Sensory (Afferent) Division and Motor (Efferent) Division. SAME DAVE.
Sensory (Afferent) Division Transmit information FROM RECEPTORS TO CNS. Divided into somatic and visceral sensory.
Motor (Efferent) Division Transmit information FROM CNS TO MUSCLE OR GLAND. Divided into somatic and autonomic motor.
Somatic Sensory Receives sensory information form skin, fascia, joints, skeletal muscles, special senses.
Visceral Sensory Receives sensory information from viscera.
Somatic Motor VOLUNTARY. Nervous system: innervates skeletal muscle
Autonomic motor INVOLUNTARY. Nervous system: innervates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands. Further divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic.
Cytology of Nervous Tissue Neurons: Excitable cells that transmit nerve impulses. Glial cells: Non-excitable cells that support and protect the neurons. Nerve glue.
Neuron Characteristics High metabolic rate-need constant glucose and oxygen. Longevity-live and function for over 100 years. Only cells like this. Nonmitotic-during fetal development lose ability to divide.
Primary tumor of the CNS May form in the meninges (meningiomas) or glial cells (gliomas). Neurons incapable of becoming tumors-can't divide. These tumors originate w/i the brain. Brain tissue is the source.
Secondary tumor of the CNS Forms in another site but spreads to the brain (lung, skin, or breast cancers).
Neuron anatomy Dendrites, Cell body, nucleus, Axon hillock, Axon, Neurofibril node (Node of Ranvier), Myelin sheath, Synaptic knobs. Be able to label picture! Know pathway!
Dendrites Carry impulses towards the cell body. Soma can have only one or many dendrites. Receive input and transfer to cell body for processing.
Cell Body AKA: Soma. Neuron control center. Contains nucleus and organelles. Comprise "gray matter." Form clusters in PNS called ganglia. Form clusters in CNS called nuclei.
Axons Most neurons have 1 axon (anaxonic neurons have none). AKA nerve fiber. Carry impulses away from cell body to another cell. Transmits its output info to other cells. Ends branch into synaptic knobs.
Structural Neuron Classification How many structures come off cell body. Unipolar-sensory afferent neurons Bipolar-special senses, uncommon in humans. Multipolar-motor efferent neurons. Most common type.
Functional Neuron Classification Sensory (afferent)-from sensory receptors to CNS. Dorsal side. Interneurons-lie between motor and sensory neurons; entirely confined to CNS. Motor (efferent)-From CNS to muscles or glands. Ventral side of spinal cord. Be able to label picture!
Glial Cells of the CNS (4) Astrocyte, Ependymal cell, Microglial cell, Oligodendrocyte
Astrocyte CNS. Star cell. Control ionic environment. Helps form blood-brain barrier. Babysits neuron. Intermediate between blood and neuron.
Ependymal cell Lining ventricles of CNS. Help produce and circulate cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). CSF is clean, filtered plasma.
Microglial cell Macrophages of CNS. Immune cell.
Oligodendrocyte Forms myelin sheaths in CNS on more than one neuron. One cell myelinates multiple axons. Extensions create myelin sheath.
Glial Cells of the PNS (2) Satellite cell, Neurolemmocyte.
Satellite cell Dorsal root ganglia of PNS. Protects and regulates nutrients for cell bodies in ganglia. Protects and provides nutrients for soma.
Neurolemmocyte AKA Schwann cell. Myelinates PNS axons. Is Myelin sheath of PNS. No extensions. Cell wraps around axons and becomes myelin sheath. Myelinates 1 section of 1 axon.
Myelin Sheath Made by oligodendrocytes in the CNS & neurolemmocytes (schwann cells) in the PNS. Protective, white, fatty coating. Supports, protects, & insulates axon. Increases speed of conduction-nerve impulses jump from node to node. Neurofibril nodes (of Ranvier)
Nerves Neurons traveling together. A cable-like bundle of parallel axons.
Three connective tissue wrappings of nerves Endoneurium-surrounds individual axon. Perineurium-surrounds individual fascicles. Epineurium-surrounds whole nerve.
Synapses Site at which neurons communicate with other neurons, glands, or muscles.
Parts of Synapses Preynaptic neuron (Neuron before synapse). Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters. Synaptic cleft (space in between). Postsynaptic neuron (Whatever connected to on other side). Label!!
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ALS or Lou Gehrig Disease. Fatal degeneration of the somatic motor system. Atrophied muscles cause breathing, speaking, & swallowing difficulties. No effective treatment or cure. Doesn't affect mind. Trapped. Cause of death: diaphragm goes-can't breathe.
Multiple Sclerosis Autoimmune disease. Patches of myelin in brain and spinal cord destroyed. Affects 1/1000 people. Symptoms: blindness, weakness, clumsiness. nervous system full of scars. Symptoms wax and wane. Vary from person to person-how many neurons involved.
Anencephaly Disorder at the cranial end of the neural tube. Substantial or complete absence of a brain-only brain stem forms. Infants rarely live longer than a few hours following birth. Usually detected w/ prenatal ultrasound. Most miscarry.
Spina Bifida Disorder at the caudal end of the neural tube. Vertebral arch is not fully formed. Mild: spina bifida occulta. Severe: spina bifida cystica. Increased intake of Vit B12 & folic acid of pregnant women decreases incidence.
Created by: punkaloo