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BIO345- Lecture 4

How is it possible to have things with genetically identical hemoglobin appear differently? Differences at other genes may affect expression & environmental influence
How is it possible to have things with genetically identical hemoglobin appear the same? Dominance, environmental influence
Vp Phenotypic variance
Vg Genetic variance
Ve Environmental variance
What's the equation for phenotypic variance? Vp = Vg + Ve
What is sickle cell anemia? An inherited disease of red blood cells (predominantly found in people o
How does sickle cell work at the genetic level? The sickle cell allele is a point mutation that changes a single amino acid in hemoglobin B
What are the three types of genetic & phenotypic hemoglobin? SS = normal hemoglobin, Ss = both normal & sickled hemoglobin, ss = sickled hemoglobin only
How can S seem dominant in an Ss hemoglobin individual if these people have both normal & sickled hemoglobin? People with Ss genotypes have enough functional red blood cells that they may not suffer the severe effects of the sickle cell
Why's hemoglobin important? Hemoglobin holds 4 oxygen molecules to take to different parts of the body
How does sickle cell work on a cellular level? An amino acid changes causes the chemical to form long strings when it lets loose its oxygen, causing the red cell to become deformed into a sickle shape
Describe the shape, hardness, flow, and lifetime of normal hemoglobin disc-shaped, soft (like a bag of jelly), easily flows through small blood vessels, & lives for 120 days
Describe the shape, hardness, flow, and lifetime of sickle hemoglobin sickle-shaped, hard (like a piece of wood), often gets stuck in small blood vessels, & lives for 20 days or less
Pleiotropy One gene has many phenotypic effects
What are the phenotypic effects of someone sickle cell anemia (ss)? Enlarged spleen, anemia or shortage of red blood cells, pain episodes, stroke or brain damage, kidney failure, pneumonia, increased infections
How are people who are SS, Ss, & ss with sickle cell malaria different in terms of malaria? ss = malaria resistant but die before adulthood, SS = susceptible to malaria, Ss = malaria resistance b
Population Group of sexually interbreeding or potentially interbreeding organisms (= deme(?))
Gene physical stretch of DNA encoding some product (= locus(?))
Allele Different forms of gene products at the same locus
Which allele is dominant for flower color in snapdragons? Neither because they're codominant
Snapdragon: red (RR) + white (rr) all pink (Rr)
Snapdragon: What happens when you cross-pollinate two pink flowers (Rr)? ¼ white (rr), ½ pink (Rr), ¼ red (RR)
Why do you get a ratio of 1:2:1 after crossing two Rr's? Mendel's law of segregation
Punnet square A probability matrix that takes the gametes from 2 parents and combines them randomly
“Randomly” It means that each allele will be found in 50% of all gametes
How do you do the math for finding the probability of getting a heterozygote using a punnet square cross of two Rr's? 0.5 (R) x 0.5 (r) x 2 = 0.5, 50%
How do you determine the proportions of the colors of flowers of the next generation? Determine the frequency of each genotype & allele
How do you calculate allele frequency of R in Rr? p(R) = [(2*#RR)+(#Rr)]
How do we know if genotypic frequencies have achieved equilibrium? They're the same as in the parents
Hardy-Weinberg Principle If there are no disturbances in the system, allele & genotype frequencies will remain constant through time
What's an important conclusion of Hardy & Weinberg? Mendel's laws can result in stability of allele frequencies over time at the population level
What are possible disturbances of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? finite population size (causing sampling error), mutation, selection, migration, & nonrandom mating (assortive mating
What's a second important conclusion of Hardy & Weinberg? Segregation & random union of gametes means that probability of different genotypes (x, y, z) is determined by allele frequences (p, q)
At equilibrium, what do we expect to find in terms of genotypic frequencies? p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
How can we tell if a population is in equilibrium? Observed & expected values are the same
How can we statistically test to see if a population's in equilibrium? The chi-square goodness of fit test: x^2 = sum[(#observed-#expected)^2
What does a chi square work and not work on? Works on count but not on frequencies
Degrees of freedom (df) #classes - #independent values obtained from data (for example: df = 3 (RR, Rr, rr) – 2 (sample size, p) = 1)
How do we define an event as significant? We look at the probability the event will occur by chance (alpha = 0.05)
Created by: 817229501