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ANP vitamin k

Test 1

What is the synthetic, plant, and animal form of vitamin k? Menadione, phylloquinone, menaquinone
What pathway should you follow for absorption of vitamin k? Absorption of lipids.
What vitamin can interfere with vitamin k absorption? Vitamin A because it is fat soluble and may have similar transporters
Phylloquinone's absorption has what kind of transporter and where is it absorbed? regulated transporter that requires energy, and absorbed in jejunum
menaquinone and menadione are absorbed where and by what means? absorbed in the distal small intestines (ileum) and the colon by passive diffusion
How is vitamin K transported? mainly in VLDL
Once absorbed how is phyllaquinone found in the body? in circulation
Once absorbed how is menaquinone found in the body? mainly in the liver: however very little stays in the liver it is in highest concentrations in the adrenal glands, lymph nodes, bone marrow, kidneys and lungs
Explain in detail the absorption of vitamin K the form of menaquinone Bile acids breaking fat into micelles, passive diffusion in ileum or colon for menaquinone Packaged into chylomicrons sent to liver as chylomicron remnants, packaged into VLDL's
Explain in detail the absorption of vitamin K in the form of phylloquinone Bile acids breaking fat into micelles,absorption via transporters in jejunum for phylloquinone. Packaged into chylomicrons sent to liver as chylomicron remnants, packaged into VLDL's
Explain in detail the absorption of vitamin K in the form of menadione Bile acids breaking fat into micelles, passive diffusion in ileum or colon for menadione. Packaged into chylomicrons sent to liver as chylomicron remnants, alkylated (side chains added), packaged into VLDL's
When is vitamin K done being metabolized and is excreted? When it is glucuronidated
How is vitamin k excreted? conjugated mainly in feces also excreted in urine
List all the functions of vitamin k in the body blood clotting, bone mineralization, vascular calcification
Explain vitamin K's role in blood clotting/coagulation vitamin k is necessary for the post-translational carboxylation of specific glutamate residues (modified glutamate residues called GLA) which enable protein to bind calcium
What form must vitamin k be in for activity in the vitamin k cycle to form Gla residues the reduced hydroquinone form with OH's on it
Explain the enzyme that helps with post translational carboxylation of glutamate residues Vitamin K dependent carboxylase enzyme adds a carboxyl group to a glutamic acid residue that attracts and binds calcium really avidly
Can vitamin K be recycled? Yes through the activity of the epoxide reductase enzymes
General features of coagulation cascade Zymogens converted to enzymes “Complex formation” requiring calcium, phospholipid surface, cofactors Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin monomer Fibrin monomer crosslinked to fibrin Forms "glue" for platelet plug
Which factors of are vitamin K dependent II, VII, IX, X
What are the four components of hemostasis for prevention of blood loss Vasculature Platelets: ATP, Ca ions(making calcium available at the site of injury) Coagulation proteins/factors Fibrinolytic system
What starts the coagulation cascade? Beginning of cascade can be due the presence of collagen, which is normally contained in endothelium
Explain the importance of calcium in coagulation The heads of the gla proteins all bind Ca avidly which grabs onto the phospholipid bilayer (because of the charge attraction) and creates a bridge that brings all the clotting factors within proximity of each other
Who is at risk for vitamin K deficiency Newborns, malabsorption diseases, liver disease, people who take high doses of vitamin A and E for long periods, injured
What are some easy assessments of vitamin K deficiency Blood clotting time longer than normal, plasma prothrombin levels are HIGHLOW? high undercarboxylated osteocalcin
where is osteocalcin made and by what cells? bone, osteoblasts
what is the purpose of osteocalcin? it inhibits mineralization of bones,
What would happen if you didn't have Ca present in clotting cascade? The coagulation factors would not be allowed to assemble in proximity to each other. Calcium is the bridge, without calcium these would never meet, its like match.com
In the clotting cascade thrombin converts ________ to ______. fibrinogen to fibrin
What happens in general following tissue injury? Vasoconstriction Platelet aggregation fibrin (the glue) formation
what is fibrin? fibrin is the end result of the clotting cascade and this protein forms a clot over a wound site
Created by: chelsea.adams