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Org Com

businesses move manufacturing and service centers to countries where labor is cheap. outsourcing
statistical descriptions of characteristics of a population- things like age, race, income, educational attainment, and so on. Demographics
five critical features, namely the existence of a social collectivity, organizational and individual goals, coordinating activity, organizational structure, and the embedding of the organization within an enviornment of other organizations. Organization
important in coordinatiing processes of change in first and third world nations. nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
individuals with similar needs and goals to come together in organizations and are motivated by a concern for democracy, social justice, and enviornmental and global responsibility. cooperatives
physical location and operatations virtual organizations
fraternities and sororities, or even families or groups of friends who are coordinating around valued goals and tasks. social organizations
an overarching way of thinking about communication metamodel
the practiacl art of disclosure Rhetorical
Intersubjective mediation by signs Semiotic
Expierence of otherness; dialogue Phenomenological
Information processing Cybernetic
Expression, interaction, and influence sociopsychological
Reproduction of social order socioculture
discursive reflection critical
A specialization of tasks illustrates one way in which organizational functioning can be seen as machinelike. Work can best be accomplished if the employees are assigned to a limit number of specialized tasks division of labor
"father of modern operational-managment theory" Henri Fayol
planning, organizaing, command, cordination, control 5 fundamental elements of managment
looking to the future to determine the best way to attain organizational goals planning
the arrangement of human resources (employees) and the evaluation of those employees organizing
managers set tasks for employees in order to meet organizational goals command
"the separate activities of an organization must be harmonized into a single whole." coordination
the comparison between goals and activities to ensure that the organization is functioning in the manner planned. control
an organization should be arranged in a strict vertical hierarcy and that communication should be largely limitied to this vertical flow Scalar chain
an employee should recieve orders regarding a particular task from only one supervisor Unity of command
activities having similar goals should be placed under a single supervisor Unity of direction
there should be an appointed place for each employee and task within the organization Order
managers will be most effective if they have control of a limited number of employees Span of control
organizations will be most effective when central managment has control over decision making and employee activities. centralization
managers should hold authority that derives from both their position in the organization and their personal characteristics (such as intellegence and expierence) authority and responsiblity
all organizational members should be obedient to the rules of the organization and to the managers who enforce them discipline
employees should be rewarded for their work with appropriate salaries and benefits remuneration of personnel
in remuneration employees should be treated justly equity
the organization should guarantee sufficient time on the job for employees to achieve maximum performance tenure stability
an organization can be effective only when the interests of the whole take precedence over the interests of individuals. Thus, individuals must always consider organizational goals first subordination of individual intrest to general interest
managers should value and direct an employee's efforts to work in the best interest of the organization Initiative
"all for one and one for all" there should be no dissension in the organizational ranks Esprit de corps
hierarchy, division of labor, centralization, closed systems, importance of rules, functioning of authority Webster's six facets of bureaucracy
power based on long-standing beliefs about who should have control and is often vested in particular positions within an organizational hierarchy traditional authority
power based on an individual's personality and ability to attract and interact with followers charismatic authority
power based on the rational applications of rules developed through a reliance on information and expertise. Power rests not in the individual, but in the expertise and rationality that have created a system of rules and norms. rational-legal authority
Theory of scientific managment; his goal was to provide prescriptions for how organizations could be better run. He concentrates on the "micro" level of organizational functioning. Frederick Taylor
there is one best way to do every job, proper selection of workers, training workers, inherent difference between managment and workers four tenents of Taylor
supervisors talking to subordinates and visa versa vertical communication flow
employees at the same level of the organization talking to each other horizontal communication flow
all organizational members are encouraged to talk with all other members free-flowing communication flow
organizations are conceptualized as highly standardized, specialized, and predictable machine metaphor
managing consists of elements of planning, commanding, coordinating, controlling, and organizing. Henri Fayol's Theory of Classical Managment
emphasizes the closed nature of bureaucracy, the importance of organizational rules, and the predominance of rational-legal authority in bureaucratic functioning Max Weber's Theory of Bureaucracy
a microscopic theory that considers relationships between managment and workers and the manner in which jobs should be designed Fredrick Taylor's Theory of Scientific Managment
inspired by the Hawthorne Studies, that pointed scholars and practioners toward the importance of human needs and the consideration of managment practice and job design to meet those needs. human relations approach
content, direction, channels and style factors of communication
illumination studies, relay assembly test room studies, interview prgram, and the bank wiring room studies 4 phases in the Hawthorne Studies
designed to determine the influence of lighting level on worker productivity illumination studies
ways to learn more about the impact of working conditions on productivity, the interviewrs found workers more intrested in talking about their feelings and attitudes. the interview program
mere attention to individuals causes change in behavior Hawthorne effect
representative of a manager influenced by the most negative aspects of classical managment theories. 1. The average man works as little as possible 2. Lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility, perfers to be led 3. self-centred 4. resistant to change Theory X
a strong and forceful hand is essential for harnessing the efforts of basically unmotivated workers. Theory X manager
workers are highly motivated to satisfy achievement and self-actualization needs and that the job of the manager is to bring out the natural tendencies of these intelligent and motivated workers Theory Y Manager
acknowledges contributions of classical and, especially, human relations approaches to organizing. human resources approach
a tool for training managers in leadership styles that would enhance organizational efficiency and effectiveness and stimulate the satisfaction and creativity of individual workers. managerial grid
characterized by a low concern for people and a low concern for production impoverished management
characterized by high concern for people and a low concern for production country club management
is characterized by high concern for production and low concern for people authority-compliance
is characterized by high concern for both production and people team managment
a manager who attempts to balance concern for people and production without going too far for either goal. middle-of-the-road managment
motivation through threats and fear, downward and inaccurate communication, top-level decision making, the giving of orders, and top-level control exploitive authoritative organization
characterized by motivation throught economic and ego rewards, limited communication, decison making at the top, goal setting through orders and comments, and top-level control benevolent authoritatice organization
decisions still made at top managment level but employees thoughts and views and taken into consideration consulative organization
decision making is performed by every organizational member and goals are set by complete work groups. participated organization
communication that attempted to maintain the quality of human relationships within the organization maintenance communication
interaction about how the job can be done better, new products the organization could produce, different ways of structuring the organization, and so on. innovation communication
emphasize mental flexibility, team learning, a shared vision, complex thinking, and personal mastery learning organizations
see the organization as embodying a cycle of knowledge creation, development, and application knowledge managment
system components are arranged in highly complex ways that involve subsystems and supersystems hierarchical ordering
hierarchical ordering, interdependence, and permeability system components
highlights the importance of feedback and regulation in goal-directed systems cybernetic systems theory
emphasizes how organizational interaction revolves around making sesne of equivocal information enviornments Weick's theory of organizing
a complex and adaptive system in which orger can emerge from disorder, in which time makes a difference, and in which large effects can come from very small changes. "New Sciences" systems theory
system components are arranged in highly complex ways that involve subsystems and super systems hierarchial ordering
implies that the functioning of one compenent of a system relies on other components of the system. ex: brain needing blood to function interdependence
allows info and materials to flow in and out. the degree varies from system to system some are relativley closed whereas other are extremly open. permeability
a system "inputs" materials or info from the environment through its permeable boundaries. at the most basic levels systems are characterized by this input-throughtput-output
both input and output activities, both the input of materials and information and the output of transformed materials and information require a process of exchange with the enviornments outside the syste. exchange
information that helps to facilitate the interdependent functioning of system components. Two types are important to system fuctioning. feedback
serves to keep organization functioning on a steady course negative feedback, corrective feedback, or deviation reducing
serves to change the entire system rather than to maintain it in a steady state. positve, growth, or deviation amplifying
"more than the sum of its parts." Systems have this property because of the interdependent nature of their components and the info that flows through the processes of feedback and exchage. Holism
a system is complex and interconnected, there is more than a single path to any system outcome Equifinality
a system fights off deterioration and perhaps thrives through active exchange with the system's environment. negative entropy
the relationship between a system and its enviornment. internal workings of the system must be as diverse and complicated as the enviornment in which it is embedded. Requisite variety
deals with the process through which physical, natural, and organizational systems are steered toward reaching system goals. Developed by Norbert Wiener Cybernectic Systems Theory
being given the same information but processing it differently than others. Karl Weick's theory of organizing
the unpredictability that is inherent in the information enviornment of an organization. Ex: attaching logical or ilogical meaning to interactions equivocality
procedures that can guide organizational members in set patterns of sensemaking assembly rules
provides a means for creating and analyzing those maps of relationships. Useful in draing and analyzing the maps that characterize organizational communication systems. network analysis
includes network content, network mode, and network density. It can be categorized in terms of its density. network as a whole
refers to the "stuff" that is flowing through the linkages in the network. Falls into four major categories: goods and services, information, expressions of affect, and attempts to influence or control. network content
refers to the communication medium through which network linkages are maintained. network mode
define the ways in which individuals are connected with each other. network roles
approach suggests that the richest understanding of organization systems can be obtained by closely observing specific organizations grappling with specific issues case analysis approach
Created by: 1097640075