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The Skeleton

Lecture Unit 1

Axial Skeleton Forms long central axis of body. Consists of skull, vertebral column, and thorax. Axis.
Appendicular Skeleton Bones of the appendages. Consists of limb bones and their girdles. Appendages.
Sutural bones Vary in individuals. May be as big as a quarter. Islands of bone in skull.
Foramen and Canals Pathway for blood vessels and nerves.
Paranasal Sinuses Lined with mucous-catches bad stuff. Warm and humidify air. Make skull lighter. Resonate sound. ethmoidal, frontal, maxillary, and sphenoid sinuses.
Vertebral Column Cervical-7; Atlas (C1), Axis (C2). Thoracic-12. Lumbar-5. Sacrum-5 fused. Coccyx-4 fused.
Vertebrae Intervertebral disc, body, pedicle, transverse process, lamina, spinous process, vertebral foramen, articular process, transverse foramen (only cervical). Costal facet and demifacet (only thoracic).
Intervertebral Discs Cushion-like pads. NUCLEUS PULPOSUS: pulp in center. Gelatinous, high water content. Enables spine to absorb compressive stress. ANNULUS FIBROSUS: Outer rings, ligament. Inner rings, fibrocartilage. Limits epansion of nucleus pulposus.
Herniated Disc: Rupture of annulus fibrosus, followed by protrusion of nucleus pulposus. Pressure on nerve roots-causes pain and numbness. Treatments: NSAIDs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ex: ibuprofen. Steroid drugs. Physical therapy. Surgery.
Rib Cage Sternum. True ribs (T1-T7). False ribs (T8-T12). Floating ribs (T11-T12). Costal Cartilage. Costovertebral angle. 24 total ribs.
Phlanges 14 on hand or foot. Proximal, middle, distal phalanx. Thumb=pollex. Big toe= Hallux
Carpals and Tarsals 8 carpals per wrist. 7 tarsals per ankle.
Os Coxa 3 fused bones: Ilium, Ischium, Pubis. Symphisis pubis-fibrocartilage. Acetabulum-socket. Obturator foramen.
Male Pelvis Tilted less forward. Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep. Bones heavier and thicker. Acetabula closer together. More triangular in shape.
Female Pelvis Tilted forward. True pelvis is wide, broad, and shallow with greater capacity. Bones lighter and thinner. Acetabula farther apart. More rectangular in shape. Adapted for childbearing.
Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Incomplete fusion of facial bones. Occurs in 1 per 1000 births. May experience problems with swallowing and feeding. May affect speech. Can be treated with surgery.
Spine Curvature Abnormalities Kyphosis-Hunchback. Lordosis-Swayback. Scoliosis-Most common spine curvature deformity.
Thalidomide Another Teratogen. Perscribed as a sleep aid and for morning sickness in 1950s and 60s. Affects limb formation during weeks 4-8 (critical stage of development). Caused phocomelia and amelia
Limb Malformations Polydactyly: Extra digits. Meromelia: Partial absence of a limb. Phocomelia: Short, poorly formed limb, fin-like. Amelia: Complete absence of a limb.
Created by: punkaloo