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Pathology study of diseases
Etiology study of disease causes
Pathogenesis how a disease will develop in time
Infection invasion of the body by pathogenic organisms
Disease when an infection results in a change in the state of health
Normal flora microorganisms that take up permanent residence and yet do not cause any disease
Microbial antagonism normal microbiota can benefit the host by preventing the overgrowth of harmful microorganisms
Symbiosis relationship between the normal microbiota and the host
Commensalism one organism is benefited and the other is unaffected; bacteria that eat skin that is sloughed off
Mutualism both organisms are benefited; E. coli in the large intestine synthesizes vitamins K and B
Parasitism one organism is benefited at the expense of the other; many diseases fit into this
Synergism both organisms must do their work together in order to be successful
Pathogenic organisms cause diseases
True pathogens routinely cause disease
Opportunistic pathogens under healthy conditions no effect, but will when other disease weakens the host
Drug fast antibiotic resistant (MRSA)
Symptoms subjective sick feelings not noticeable to others
Signs objective sick feelings measurable by others
Syndrome group of signs that always accompany a disease
Communicable able to spread from one to another
Contagious easily spread; influenza
Non-communicable not able to be spread to others; tetanus
Incidence fraction of the population who DEVELOP the disease in a time period
Prevalence fraction of the population who HAVE the disease in a time period
Sporadic happens occasionally; anthrax
Endemic constantly present in a population or area; common colds
Epidemic many people in a short time; influenza
Pandemic worldwide problem;or the majority of a population
Acute rapid appearance and lasting short time
Chronic slow appearance and lasts longer
Latent inactive for a period of time and then reactivates; chicken pox to shingles
Local infection located in a small area; boil
Systemic infection or generalized infection spread through the body through blood or lymph system; measles
Focal infection starts in one place and travels elsewhere; teeth to heart
Bacteremia presence of bacteria in the blood
Septicemia bacteria are now growing in the blood
Viremia virus present in the blood
Sapremia saprophytes present in the blood
Toxemia Toxins in the blood
Primary infection Caused by illness
Secondary infection side disease that follow the initial illness
Subclinical infection disease that does not cause any noticeable illness, asymptomatic;
Exogenous infections pathogens from outside the body
Endogenous infections pathogens from within the host
Mixed infections a multiple infection caused by 2 or more microorganisms
Terminal infections those that end in death (or end at the airport)
Passive carrier transmit for less than one year with no sign or symptom
Active carriers share disease while having the same signs and symptoms
Convalescent carriers recovering from clinical form of disease
Chronic carriers carry the disease for longer than 1 year usually with no sign or symptom of the disease
Animal source or Zoonoses diseases that occur primarily in wild and domestic animals and are transmitted to humans Through direct animal contact such as a brush or a bite Or, with contaminated excreta Or, with food or water they have contaminated Or, through the air from hides
WHat does a disease need to be able to spread? a way to move from host to host
Physical person to person by casual touching, kissing and sexual contact that produce STD or sexually transmitted diseases; can also be animal to person contact
Droplet happens when expelled during coughing, sneezing, laughing, talking, spitting
Congenital in the womb through placental transmission or during childbirth while in the birth canal
Indirect airborne or ingestion, contact with an object
Fomites bacteria on inanimate objects as drinking glasses, door knobs, syringes etc.
Insect (anthropod) vectors – mechanical (outside insect), biologically (insect bites)
Forensic deal with the causes of death that have legal and medical significance either civil or criminal; it is an unrestricted action in that everything needed to be done to determine cause and manner of death, whether or not the embalmer likes it
Coroner 21, not a felon, elected to a four year term, often funeral directors, not necessary to be a pathologist
Medical Examiners board certified pathologists that are appointed by the county board and can be fired by that same board
Clinical they treat patients usually in larger institutions; body fluids, secretions and excretions; especially blood and urine
Cellular Pathology Rudolf Virchow is the father of this study
Basis cellular changes during growth is the beginning of disease
Gross Path any observation made with the observation of the eye
Microscopic Path histo-pathology, the need for a microscope to see
General Path changes not specific to a system or to a part
Special Path changes specific to a system or to a part
Pathological Anatomy removal of tissue for study
Clinical Pathology laboratory tests on body fluids and secretions
Physiological pathology regarding the functions of the body
Forensic or Medical legal pathology medical in cooperation with legal issues
Biopsies tissues removed from living or dead bodies to be studied, determined and advice given in consequences
Surgical from living bodies
Autopsy from dead human bodies
Forensic not voluntary, legal authority, determines cause and manner of death for legal reasons
Clinical voluntary and not often done, it confirms the cause of death or poses another cause of death; can be limited to a various part of the body; contributes to medical understanding; can provide some peace of mind to the surviving family
Role of FD in autopsy request – neither discourage nor encourage; can advise it may add a few days to the waiting for funeralization; Confidential information not to be discussed unless with family or medical professionals.
Health sound body, mind and soul; opposite of disease which is an interruption in the harmony of the body, mind and soul; holistic approach
Disease any change in the structure of the function of the body as a result of injury to tissue
Fulminating particularly severe, sudden and often fatal
Recurrent alternating increase and decrease in the disease
Intercurrent another disease occurring simultaneous with others
Idiopathic the kind of disease is not presently known
Occupational as a result of a working environment; why OSHA exists
Febrile disease with a fever
Intoxicating State of being poisoned
Suppuration the process of pus (white blood cells surrounding bacteria) formation
Non-suppuration no process of forming pus
Deficiency disease from a lack of essential dietary ingredients such as vitamins, and minerals
Lesions structural changes produced in the tissues as a result of disease
Syndrome a group of symptoms or signs which usually appear together to indicate a particular disease
Diagnosis the identification of a disease as to its name
Prognosis a prediction of the probable outcome of a disease
Remission a let-up in the severity of the disease with diminish signs, yet still present
Sequalae remote or much later effects of the disease
Exacerbation sudden increase in the severity
Complication unfavorable condition which occurs as a result of having the disease
Pathogenesis the manner in which it develops
Iatrogenic disease caused by a physicians treatment
Factors exciting disease trauma, physical or chemical agents, infectious agents, deficiency, allergens
Predisposing factors age, gender, race, occupation, environment, emotion, economic status, heredity
Anomalies ANything other than normal
Aplasia absence of body part
Hypoplasia underdevelopment of body part
Spina bifida Defect in the walls of the lower spinal column
Polydactilism extra digits
Hernia organ poking therough the wall of a muscle
Fistula abnormal path through the tissue created by your body
Cyst abnormal fluid filled sac
Turner's syndrome 45 chromosomes
Amelia abscence of limb
Phocomelia proximal parts underdeveloped
Cleft lip or pallet failed closure of the lip or pallet
Cystic fibrosis Cells are prevented from releasing chloride resulting in a salt imbalance