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ZOOL 320 - CH 19

Flight and Flightlessness

General types of wings: High aspect ratio High speed Elliptical High lift
Example of bird with high aspect ratio wings. Shearwater
Example of bird with high speed wings. Swallow
Example of bird with elliptical wings. Pheasant
Example of bird with high lift wings. Rough-legged hawk
what are the adaptations of foot propelled diving birds? Lobing rather than webbing. Fusiform shaped leg musculature incorporated into the body mass to reduce drag. Cnemial crest for mechanical advantage of extending leg. Extension of tibia in loons, of kneecap in hesperonithiforms, from both in grebes.
Why does flightlessness evolve primarily on islands? Islands free from predators, so flight is less important for escaping predation.
Wings used for submarine flight only Stage C: Penguins and Great Auk
Wings used for both submarine and aerial flight Stage B: Diving-petrels and Razorbill
Wings used for aerial flight only Stage A: Petrels and Gulls
The only flightless seabird Galapagos flightless cormorant
The only flightless pigeon Island of Mauritius dodo
The only flightless parrot New Zealand kakapo
Flightless geese from Hawaii Thambetochen chauliodous
only flightless ibis flightless Hawaiian ibis
Changes occurring with flightlessness: Lack of keel in sternum. Acute angle in pectoral girdle shortens the distance through which dorsal elevator muscles act. No front limb.
Flightlessness evolves through what? Neoteny
Adaptation of toes for terrestrial locomotion includes toe reduction in what? fast runners
Used for climbing, scratching, and grasping prey. toes
Five birds that has webbing: Ciconiiform seabirds Anseriform waterfowl Procellariiform seabirds Charadriiform birds Gaviiform loons
Development of the sternum in the flying rail Porphyrula martinica shows how the carina in its early stages corresponds to the shape of the carina in these two different species of flightless rails. Gallirallus australis and Gallirallus owstoni.
Its sternum is entirely cartilaginous but has nearly the same conformation as Gallirallus australis. P. martinica
A flightless New Zealand wood rail about the size of a small chicken. weka, Gallirallus australis
A gruiform from New Caledonia. Flightless kagu, Rhynochetos jubatus
Nearly flightless, live in Madagascar, climb to nests, reduced clavicles and powderdown, unique gruiformes. mesites, Mesoenas variegata
Soaring flight by exploiting columns of warm air. thermal soaring
soaring flight by using air deflected upward from terrestrial ridge of ocean wave. slope soaring
fast flyers, with huge hands, only 6 or 7 secondaries, ball and socket glenoid hummingbirds
have powered flight as well as soaring, 3 segments about equal in length frigatebirds
soar, forearm is longest segment, as many as 32 secondaries albatross
from up position, wing moves forward and down. arm is rotated on upstroke so that wing comes alongside body. slow braking flight
In general, wing loading increases with what? body size
highest wing loading recorded is found in a sea bird that swims and dives. thick-billed murre
primary flight feathers generate what? thrust
secondary flight feathers generate what? lift
asymmetric vaning of primary flight feathers causes the feather to twist during downward stroke.
asymmetric vaning enables air to flow over the twisted feather at the appropriate angle of attack and the resultant force can be partitioned into forward thrust, vertical lift, and some backward drag.
with alula extended, air flows above, below, and through the wing, enabling lift to generated at slower airspeeds.
At this angle of attack, air no longer travels smoothly over the upper surface of the airfoil. some is forced back down onto the surface reducing it. Stalling
Stalling can be prevented at a particular angle of attack by increasing airspeed.
generates resultant force that can be partitioned into lift and drag. Airfoil
Created by: dominatrix