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Newnam-1st Sem Vocab

Fall Semester Vocabulary Review

Proton positively charged and found in nucleus
Neutron neutral or no charge and found in the nucleus
Electron negatively charged and located in electron cloud
Atomic Number Number of protons in nucleus of each atom of that element
Periodic Table of Elements Chart to organize and display known elements; in order by atomic number
Group Columns on periodic table;also known as “families”;Elements have similar chemical and physical properties & same number of valence electrons
Metals Shiny, good conductors, mostly solids, malleable (can be shaped) & ductile (can be drawn into wires), located on left and center of periodic table
Chemical Symbol One or two letter code that stands for the element on the periodic table
Chemical Formula Way of describing the elements and number of atoms that make up one molecule of a compound using symbols, subscripts, and coefficients
Coefficient Number placed in front of a formula to balance an equation
Chemical Reaction The process by which atoms of one or more substances are rearranged to form different substances
Reactants Starting substances in chemical reaction
Products Substances formed during a chemical reaction
Law of Conservation of Mass States that matter can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only change form
Force A push or a pull
Speed The distance traveled by an object in a given amount of time
Velocity The speed of an object and its direction of motion
Acceleration Change in speed or direction;Can be positive (speeding up) or negative (slowing down)
Balanced Forces Equal in size and opposite in direction;Do not cause a change in motion
Unbalanced Forces Always cause a change in motion;NOT equal in size or opposite in direction
Newton’s First Law An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force
Newton’s Second Law The greater the force applied to an object, the greater the acceleration; The smaller the mass of an object, the greater its acceleration when a force is applied; Force = Mass X Acceleration
Newton’s Third Law For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction; Forces act in pairs
Star Huge object in space made up of gas and giving off light and heat from nuclear reactions
Nuclear Fusion nuclei of atoms are joined together, releasing energy that power stars like the sun
Apparent Magnitude Measures how bright objects appear to us, not how bright they actually are
Absolute Magnitude Measures the actual brightness of the object
Galaxy A large group or cluster of stars in the universe
Comet small body of rock, ice or cosmic dust; Give off gas and dust in the form of a tail as it passes close to the sun
Asteroids Objects of rock, metal and ice that orbit the sun; most found between Mars and Jupiter
Electromagnetic Wave made by vibrating electrons
Light Year distance that light can travel in one year; used to measure distances in space
Created by: anewnam